Example of the beta movement effect
Demonstration of phi phenomenon using two black bars (SOA = 102 ms, ISI = −51 ms)
Nr. 10 in the reworked second series of Stampfer's stroboscopic discs published by Trentsensky & Vieweg in 1833.
Canary Wharf news ticker
"Magni-phi" variant of the classical experimental arrangement with more than two elements.
A projecting praxinoscope, from 1882, here shown superimposing an animated figure on a separately projected background scene
Demonstration of phi phenomenon using two black bars (SOA = 102 ms, ISI = −51 ms)
Example of beta movement
Fantasmagorie (1908) by Émile Cohl
Hassenstein–Reichardt detection model
Italian-Argentine cartoonist Quirino Cristiani showing the cut and articulated figure of his satirical character El Peludo (based on President Yrigoyen) patented in 1916 for the realization of his films, including the world's first animated feature film El Apóstol.
An example of traditional animation, a horse animated by rotoscoping from Eadweard Muybridge's 19th-century photos.
A clay animation scene from a Finnish television commercial
A 2D animation of two circles joined by a chain
World of Color hydrotechnics at Disney California Adventure creates the illusion of motion using 1,200 fountains with high-definition projections on mist screens.

The illusion of motion caused by animation and film is sometimes believed to rely on beta movement, as an alternative to the older explanation known as persistence of vision.

- Beta movement

In contrast to beta movement, seen at lower frequencies, the stimuli themselves do not appear to move.

- Phi phenomenon

This includes especially beta movement, which has been regarded as the illusion of motion in cinema and animation, although it can be argued that beta movement indicates long-range apparent motion rather than the short-range apparent motion seen in film.

- Phi phenomenon

The illusion of animation—as in motion pictures in general—has traditionally been attributed to persistence of vision and later to the phi phenomenon and/or beta movement, but the exact neurological causes are still uncertain.

- Animation

Wertheimer used the Greek letter φ (phi) to designate illusions of motion and thought of the high-frequency objectless illusion as a "pure phi phenomenon", which he supposed was a more direct sensory experience of motion.

- Beta movement
Example of the beta movement effect

0 related topics with Alpha