A report on Animation and Computer animation

Nr. 10 in the reworked second series of Stampfer's stroboscopic discs published by Trentsensky & Vieweg in 1833.
An example of computer animation which is produced from the "motion capture" technique
A projecting praxinoscope, from 1882, here shown superimposing an animated figure on a separately projected background scene
3D game character animated using skeletal animation.
Fantasmagorie (1908) by Émile Cohl
In this .gif of a 2D Flash animation, each 'stick' of the figure is keyframed over time to create motion.
Italian-Argentine cartoonist Quirino Cristiani showing the cut and articulated figure of his satirical character El Peludo (based on President Yrigoyen) patented in 1916 for the realization of his films, including the world's first animated feature film El Apóstol.
A ray-traced 3-D model of a jack inside a cube, and the jack alone below.
An example of traditional animation, a horse animated by rotoscoping from Eadweard Muybridge's 19th-century photos.
A clay animation scene from a Finnish television commercial
A 2D animation of two circles joined by a chain
World of Color hydrotechnics at Disney California Adventure creates the illusion of motion using 1,200 fountains with high-definition projections on mist screens.

The more general term computer-generated imagery (CGI) encompasses both static scenes and dynamic images, while computer animation only refers to moving images.

- Computer animation

Computer animation can be very detailed 3D animation, while 2D computer animation (which may have the look of traditional animation) can be used for stylistic reasons, low bandwidth, or faster real-time renderings.

- Animation
Nr. 10 in the reworked second series of Stampfer's stroboscopic discs published by Trentsensky & Vieweg in 1833.

10 related topics with Alpha

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Painting with acrylic paint on the reverse side of an already inked cel, here placed on the original animation drawing

Traditional animation

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Painting with acrylic paint on the reverse side of an already inked cel, here placed on the original animation drawing
Sketch of an animation peg bar, and measurements of three types, Acme being the most common.
A camera used for shooting traditional animation. See also Aerial image.
This image shows how two transparent cels, each with a different character drawn on them, and an opaque background are photographed together to form the composite image.
A horse animated by rotoscoping from Eadweard Muybridge's 19th-century photos. The animation consists of 8 drawings which are "looped", i.e. repeated over and over. This example is also "shot on twos", i.e. shown at 12 drawings per second.

Traditional animation (or classical animation, cel animation, hand-drawn animation, or 2D animation) is an animation technique in which each frame is drawn by hand.

The technique was the dominant form of animation in cinema until computer animation.

A frame from Namakura Gatana (1917), the oldest surviving Japanese animated short film made for cinemas

Anime

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A frame from Namakura Gatana (1917), the oldest surviving Japanese animated short film made for cinemas
Frame from the opening sequence of Tezuka's 1963 TV series Astro Boy
Anime artists employ many distinct visual styles. Clockwise from the top left: Dead Leaves, FLAG, Serial Experiments Lain, M⊙NS†ER, Mind Game, Lucky☆Star, Cat Soup, and Tengen Toppa Gurren Lagann.
Same character portrayed in different anime styles.
Akihabara district of Tokyo is popular with anime and manga fans as well as otaku subculture in Japan
Cosplay of Madoka Kaname and Kyubey from Puella Magi Madoka Magica during Tracon 2013 event at the Tampere Hall in Tampere, Finland.
Anime character design is diverse, but often incorporates common elements depending on the target demographic and era. These are representative samples. Clockwise from the top left: Ashita no Joe (1970), Macross: Do You Remember Love? (1984), Ghost in the Shell (1995), K-On! (2009), Your Name (2016), The Hidden Dungeon Only I Can Enter (2021), Fruits Basket (2001), and Rurouni Kenshin (1996).

Anime (アニメ) is a Japanese term for animation.

Since the 1990s, animators have increasingly used computer animation to improve the efficiency of the production process.

Pixar

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A Pixar computer at the Computer History Museum in Mountain View with the 1986–95 logo on it
A Luxo Jr. figure display in Hong Kong
John Lasseter appears with characters from Up at the 2009 Venice Film Festival.
The Steve Jobs Building at the Pixar campus in Emeryville
The atrium of the Pixar campus

Pixar Animation Studios, commonly known as just Pixar, is an American computer animation studio known for its critically and commercially successful computer animated feature films.

They are divided into eight sections, each demonstrating a step in the filmmaking process: Modeling, Rigging, Surfaces, Sets & Cameras, Animation, Simulation, Lighting, and Rendering.

Scottish Canadian animator Norman McLaren drawing on film, 1944

Animator

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Scottish Canadian animator Norman McLaren drawing on film, 1944
Stop-motion animated character from 20 Million Miles to Earth (1957).

An animator is an artist who creates multiple images, known as frames, which give an illusion of movement called animation when displayed in rapid sequence.

As a result of the ongoing transition from traditional 2D to 3D computer animation, the animator's traditional task of redrawing and repainting the same character 24 times a second (for each second of finished animation) has now been superseded by the modern task of developing dozens (or hundreds) of movements of different parts of a character in a virtual scene.

Original theatrical release poster by John Alvin

The Little Mermaid (1989 film)

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Original theatrical release poster by John Alvin
Georges de La Tour's 1640 painting Magdalene with the Smoking Flame is shown in the film.
Ariel meet-and-greet character at Disneyland Paris

The Little Mermaid is a 1989 American animated musical fantasy film produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and released by Walt Disney Pictures.

Effects animation supervisor Mark Dindal estimated that over a million bubbles were drawn for this film, in addition to the use of other processes such as airbrushing, backlighting, superimposition, and some computer animation.

Animated GIF of Prof. Stampfer's Stroboscopische Scheibe No. X (Trentsensky & Vieweg 1833)

Film

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Work of visual art that simulates experiences and otherwise communicates ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere through the use of moving images.

Work of visual art that simulates experiences and otherwise communicates ideas, stories, perceptions, feelings, beauty, or atmosphere through the use of moving images.

Animated GIF of Prof. Stampfer's Stroboscopische Scheibe No. X (Trentsensky & Vieweg 1833)
An animated GIF of a photographic sequence shot by Eadweard Muybridge in 1878. His chronophotographic works can be regarded as very short movies that were recorded before there was a proper way to replay the material in motion.
A frame from Roundhay Garden Scene, the world's earliest surviving film produced using a motion picture camera, by Louis Le Prince, 1888
A famous shot from Georges Méliès Le Voyage dans la Lune (A Trip to the Moon) (1902), an early narrative film and also an early science fiction film.
Salah Zulfikar, one of the most popular actors in the golden age of Egyptian Cinema
This 16 mm spring-wound Bolex "H16" Reflex camera is a popular entry level camera used in film schools.
Founded in 1912, the Babelsberg Studio near Berlin was the first large-scale film studio in the world, and the forerunner to Hollywood. It still produces global blockbusters every year.
The Lumière Brothers, who were among the first filmmakers
Salah Zulfikar and Faten Hamama in the premiere of Bain Al-Atlal ("Among the Ruins") in Cairo, 1959
An animated image of a horse, made using eight pictures.
An animation of the retouched Sallie Garner card from The Horse in Motion series (1878–1879) by Muybridge. His chronophotographic works can be regarded as very short movies that were recorded before there was a proper way to replay the material in motion.

The moving images of a film are created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, and other visual effects.

Theatrical release poster by John Alvin

Aladdin (1992 Disney film)

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Theatrical release poster by John Alvin
Style guide depicting the main characters. The animators designed each character based on a different geometrical shape.
Initially, Robin Williams voiced the Genie under the condition that his voice not be used for excessive marketing or merchandising.

Aladdin is a 1992 American animated musical fantasy comedy film produced by Walt Disney Feature Animation and released by Walt Disney Pictures.

Computer animation was used for some elements of the film, such as the tiger entrance of the Cave of Wonders and the scene where Aladdin tries to escape the collapsing cave.

Two repetitions of a walking sequence recorded using a motion-capture system

Motion capture

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Process of recording the movement of objects or people.

Process of recording the movement of objects or people.

Two repetitions of a walking sequence recorded using a motion-capture system
Motion capture performers from Buckinghamshire New University
Reflective markers attached to skin to identify body landmarks and the 3D motion of body segments
Silhouette tracking
A dancer wearing a suit used in an optical motion capture system
Markers are placed at specific points on an actor's face during facial optical motion capture.
body motion capture
A high-resolution uniquely identified active marker system with 3,600 × 3,600 resolution at 960 hertz providing real time submillimeter positions
IR sensors can compute their location when lit by mobile multi-LED emitters, e.g. in a moving car. With Id per marker, these sensor tags can be worn under clothing and tracked at 500 Hz in broad daylight.
Underwater motion capture camera
Motion tracking in swimming by using image processing

In filmmaking and video game development, it refers to recording actions of human actors, and using that information to animate digital character models in 2-D or 3-D computer animation.

Low latency, close to real time, results can be obtained. In entertainment applications this can reduce the costs of keyframe-based animation. The Hand Over technique is an example of this.

A special effect of a miniature person from the 1952 film The Seven Deadly Sins

Special effect

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Special effects (often abbreviated as SFX, F/X or simply FX) are illusions or visual tricks used in the theatre, film, television, video game, amusement park and simulator industries to simulate the imagined events in a story or virtual world.

Special effects (often abbreviated as SFX, F/X or simply FX) are illusions or visual tricks used in the theatre, film, television, video game, amusement park and simulator industries to simulate the imagined events in a story or virtual world.

A special effect of a miniature person from the 1952 film The Seven Deadly Sins
Publicity still for the 1933 film King Kong, which used stop-motion model special effects
A period drama set in Vienna uses a green screen as a backdrop, to allow a background to be added during post-production.
Bluescreens are commonly used in chroma key special effects.
Spinning fiery steel wool at night
Rig & Gimbal Mechanical Special Effects
Demonstration of bullet hit squibs embedded in a waterproof down jacket as the dead-character costume bursting out fake blood and smoke.

His most famous film, Le Voyage dans la lune (1902), a whimsical parody of Jules Verne's From the Earth to the Moon, featured a combination of live action and animation, and also incorporated extensive miniature and matte painting work.

The use of computer animation in film dates back to the early 1980s, with the films Tron (1982) and Golgo 13: The Professional (1983).

A humorous image announcing the launch of a Tumblr account for the White House suggests pronouncing GIF with a hard g.

GIF

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Bitmap image format that was developed by a team at the online services provider CompuServe led by American computer scientist Steve Wilhite and released on 15 June 1987.

Bitmap image format that was developed by a team at the online services provider CompuServe led by American computer scientist Steve Wilhite and released on 15 June 1987.

A humorous image announcing the launch of a Tumblr account for the White House suggests pronouncing GIF with a hard g.
An example of a GIF image saved with a web-safe palette and dithered using the Floyd–Steinberg method. Due to the reduced number of colors in the image, there are display issues.
An animated GIF illustrating a technique for displaying more than the typical limit of 256 colors
Sample image (enlarged), actual size 3 pixels wide by 5 high
Bytes Dh to 30Ch in the example define a palette of 256 colors.
A 46×46 uncompressed GIF with 7-bit symbols (128 colors, 8-bit codes). Click on the image for an explanation of the code.
GIF can be used to display animation, as in this image of Newton's cradle.
A GIF animation made of two photos, one morphing into the other
Rotating earth (large).gif

It also supports animations and allows a separate palette of up to 256 colors for each frame.

The feature of storing multiple images in one file, accompanied by control data, is used extensively on the Web to produce simple animations.