A report on Film and Animation

Animated GIF of Prof. Stampfer's Stroboscopische Scheibe No. X (Trentsensky & Vieweg 1833)
Nr. 10 in the reworked second series of Stampfer's stroboscopic discs published by Trentsensky & Vieweg in 1833.
An animated GIF of a photographic sequence shot by Eadweard Muybridge in 1878. His chronophotographic works can be regarded as very short movies that were recorded before there was a proper way to replay the material in motion.
A projecting praxinoscope, from 1882, here shown superimposing an animated figure on a separately projected background scene
A frame from Roundhay Garden Scene, the world's earliest surviving film produced using a motion picture camera, by Louis Le Prince, 1888
Fantasmagorie (1908) by Émile Cohl
A famous shot from Georges Méliès Le Voyage dans la Lune (A Trip to the Moon) (1902), an early narrative film and also an early science fiction film.
Italian-Argentine cartoonist Quirino Cristiani showing the cut and articulated figure of his satirical character El Peludo (based on President Yrigoyen) patented in 1916 for the realization of his films, including the world's first animated feature film El Apóstol.
Salah Zulfikar, one of the most popular actors in the golden age of Egyptian Cinema
An example of traditional animation, a horse animated by rotoscoping from Eadweard Muybridge's 19th-century photos.
This 16 mm spring-wound Bolex "H16" Reflex camera is a popular entry level camera used in film schools.
A clay animation scene from a Finnish television commercial
Founded in 1912, the Babelsberg Studio near Berlin was the first large-scale film studio in the world, and the forerunner to Hollywood. It still produces global blockbusters every year.
A 2D animation of two circles joined by a chain
The Lumière Brothers, who were among the first filmmakers
World of Color hydrotechnics at Disney California Adventure creates the illusion of motion using 1,200 fountains with high-definition projections on mist screens.
Salah Zulfikar and Faten Hamama in the premiere of Bain Al-Atlal ("Among the Ruins") in Cairo, 1959
An animated image of a horse, made using eight pictures.
An animation of the retouched Sallie Garner card from The Horse in Motion series (1878–1879) by Muybridge. His chronophotographic works can be regarded as very short movies that were recorded before there was a proper way to replay the material in motion.

Animation is a method in which figures are manipulated to appear as moving images.

- Animation

The moving images of a film are created by photographing actual scenes with a motion-picture camera, by photographing drawings or miniature models using traditional animation techniques, by means of CGI and computer animation, or by a combination of some or all of these techniques, and other visual effects.

- Film
Animated GIF of Prof. Stampfer's Stroboscopische Scheibe No. X (Trentsensky & Vieweg 1833)

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An example of computer animation which is produced from the "motion capture" technique

Computer animation

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Process used for digitally generating animated images.

Process used for digitally generating animated images.

An example of computer animation which is produced from the "motion capture" technique
3D game character animated using skeletal animation.
In this .gif of a 2D Flash animation, each 'stick' of the figure is keyframed over time to create motion.
A ray-traced 3-D model of a jack inside a cube, and the jack alone below.

The more general term computer-generated imagery (CGI) encompasses both static scenes and dynamic images, while computer animation only refers to moving images.

Sometimes, the target of the animation is the computer itself, but sometimes film as well.

The Man with the Rubber Head

Visual effects

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Process by which imagery is created or manipulated outside the context of a live-action shot in filmmaking and video production.

Process by which imagery is created or manipulated outside the context of a live-action shot in filmmaking and video production.

The Man with the Rubber Head
A period drama set in Vienna uses a green screen as a backdrop, to allow a background to be added during post-production.
Motion Capture: A high-resolution uniquely identified active marker system with 3,600 × 3,600 resolution at 960 hertz providing real time submillimeter positions
Composite of photos of one place, made more than a century apart

Visual effects using computer-generated imagery (CGI) have more recently become accessible to the independent filmmaker with the introduction of affordable and relatively easy-to-use animation and compositing software.

It was not only the first use of trickery in cinema, it was also the first type of photographic trickery that was only possible in a motion picture, and referred to as the "stop trick".

Geraldine Chaplin and Salah Zulfikar in Nefertiti and Akhenaten, a short film released in 1973.

Short film

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Geraldine Chaplin and Salah Zulfikar in Nefertiti and Akhenaten, a short film released in 1973.
William Garwood starred in numerous short films, many of which were 20 minutes in length
Paulie, a short film released in 2012.

A short film is any motion picture that is short enough in running time not to be considered a feature film.

Animated cartoons came principally as short subjects.

Depending on the frequency of flash, the element appears motionless or rotating in reverse direction

Stroboscopic effect

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Visual phenomenon caused by aliasing that occurs when continuous rotational or other cyclic motion is represented by a series of short or instantaneous samples at a sampling rate close to the period of the motion.

Visual phenomenon caused by aliasing that occurs when continuous rotational or other cyclic motion is represented by a series of short or instantaneous samples at a sampling rate close to the period of the motion.

Depending on the frequency of flash, the element appears motionless or rotating in reverse direction
Figure 1: Stroboscopic effect resulting from a moving screwdriver lit with a square-waveform modulated light source with a modulation frequency of 100 Hz, duty cycle of 50 % and 100 % modulation (SVM = 4,9); small photo inset shows absence of stroboscopic effect if screwdriver is not moved
Figure 2: Stroboscopic effect contrast threshold function (see Visibility)
Figure 3: Generic setup to test lighting equipment for its stroboscopic effect performance.

Stroboscopic principles, and their ability to create an illusion of motion, underlie the theory behind animation, film, and other moving pictures.

A film strip

Film stock

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A film strip
A silent home movie on 16mm black-and-white reversal double perforation film stock
A short strip of undeveloped 35 mm color negative film.

Film stock is an analog medium that is used for recording motion pictures or animation.

Characters in the animated series From Ilich to Kuzmich

Clay animation

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One of many forms of stop-motion animation.

One of many forms of stop-motion animation.

Characters in the animated series From Ilich to Kuzmich
A clay animation scene from a Finnish TV advertisement
stills from Battle of the Suds and other Helena Smith-Dayton films (1917)

Traditional animation, from cel animation to stop motion, is produced by recording each frame, or still picture, on film or digital media and then playing the recorded frames back in rapid succession before the viewer.

These and other moving images, from zoetrope to films and video games, create the illusion of motion by playing back at over ten to twelve frames per second.

19th century magic lantern with printed slide inserted (upright, so when lit, the lantern projected an inverted picture)

Magic lantern

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Early type of image projector that used pictures—paintings, prints, or photographs—on transparent plates , one or more lenses, and a light source.

Early type of image projector that used pictures—paintings, prints, or photographs—on transparent plates , one or more lenses, and a light source.

19th century magic lantern with printed slide inserted (upright, so when lit, the lantern projected an inverted picture)
Magic lantern slide by Carpenter and Westley
A page of Willem 's Gravesande's 1720 book Physices Elementa Mathematica with Jan van Musschenbroek's magic lantern projecting a monster. The depicted lantern is one of the oldest known preserved examples, and is in the collection of Museum Boerhaave, Leiden
A paper rimmed mass-produced slide
Illustration of Kircher's Steganographic mirror in his 1645 book Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae
A sketch of the lantern configuration (without a slide) from Huygens' letter to Pierre Petit (11 December 1664)
Huygens' 1659 sketches for a projection of Death taking off his head
Huygens' 1694 laterna magica sketch, showing: "speculum cavum (hollow mirror). lucerna (lamp). lens vitrea (glass lens). pictura pellucida (transparent picture). lens altera (other lens). paries (wall)."
Walgensten's magic lantern as illustrated in Claude Dechales Cursus seu mundus mathematicus - Tomus secundus (1674)
Illustration of an early southern German lantern from Johann Sturm, Collegium Experimentale (1677)
Illustration from Kircher's 1671 Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae - projection of hellfire or purgatory
Illustration from Kircher's 1671 Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae - projection of Death
Illustration of a lantern slide depicting Bacchus in Sturm's Collegium experimentale sive curiosum (1677)
1737 etching/engraving of an organ grinder with a magic lantern on her back by Anne Claude de Caylus (after Edme Bouchardon)
Mice jump into the mouth of a sleeping bearded man on a popular mechanical slide from circa 1870.
Mechanical slides for a magic lantern as illustrated in Petrus van Musschenbroek's Beginsels Der Natuurkunde (second edition 1739)
A stereopticon magic lantern
Slide with a fantoccini trapeze artist and a chromatrope border design (circa 1880)
Advertisement with picture of a triple lantern / dissolving view apparatus (1886)
Interpretation of Robertson's Fantasmagorie from F. Marion's L'Optique (1867)
Huygens' 1659 sketches for a projection of Death taking off his head

The popularity of magic lanterns waned after the introduction of movies in the 1890s, but they remained a common medium until slide projectors became widespread during the 1950s.

Christiaan Huygens' 1659 sketches (see above) suggest he intended to animate the skeleton to have it take off its head and place it back on its neck.

Western films are those "set in the American West that embod[y] the spirit, the struggle and the demise of the new frontier." Pictured: Clint Eastwood in the Spaghetti Western film A Fistful of Dollars (1964).

Film genre

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Western films are those "set in the American West that embod[y] the spirit, the struggle and the demise of the new frontier." Pictured: Clint Eastwood in the Spaghetti Western film A Fistful of Dollars (1964).
War film or anti-war movie: Lewis Milestone's All Quiet on the Western Front, 1930

A film genre is a stylistic or thematic category for motion pictures based on similarities either in the narrative elements, aesthetic approach, or the emotional response to the film.

For example, according to Williams, a film like Blazing Saddles could be categorized as a Comedy (type) Western (super-genre) Musical (voice) while Anomalisa is a Drama (type) Slice of Life (super-genre) Animation (voice).

Demonstration of phi phenomenon using two black bars (SOA = 102 ms, ISI = −51 ms)

Phi phenomenon

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Used in a narrow sense for an apparent motion that is observed if two nearby optical stimuli are presented in alternation with a relatively high frequency.

Used in a narrow sense for an apparent motion that is observed if two nearby optical stimuli are presented in alternation with a relatively high frequency.

Demonstration of phi phenomenon using two black bars (SOA = 102 ms, ISI = −51 ms)
"Magni-phi" variant of the classical experimental arrangement with more than two elements.
Example of beta movement
Hassenstein–Reichardt detection model

This includes especially beta movement, which has been regarded as the illusion of motion in cinema and animation, although it can be argued that beta movement indicates long-range apparent motion rather than the short-range apparent motion seen in film.