Painting with acrylic paint on the reverse side of an already inked cel, here placed on the original animation drawing
Nr. 10 in the reworked second series of Stampfer's stroboscopic discs published by Trentsensky & Vieweg in 1833.
A GIF-based example of limited animation in the Japanese style: the mouth, eyes, arms and shadow are moving in a looping manner.
Sketch of an animation peg bar, and measurements of three types, Acme being the most common.
A projecting praxinoscope, from 1882, here shown superimposing an animated figure on a separately projected background scene
A camera used for shooting traditional animation. See also Aerial image.
Fantasmagorie (1908) by Émile Cohl
This image shows how two transparent cels, each with a different character drawn on them, and an opaque background are photographed together to form the composite image.
Italian-Argentine cartoonist Quirino Cristiani showing the cut and articulated figure of his satirical character El Peludo (based on President Yrigoyen) patented in 1916 for the realization of his films, including the world's first animated feature film El Apóstol.
A horse animated by rotoscoping from Eadweard Muybridge's 19th-century photos. The animation consists of 8 drawings which are "looped", i.e. repeated over and over. This example is also "shot on twos", i.e. shown at 12 drawings per second.
An example of traditional animation, a horse animated by rotoscoping from Eadweard Muybridge's 19th-century photos.
A clay animation scene from a Finnish television commercial
A 2D animation of two circles joined by a chain
World of Color hydrotechnics at Disney California Adventure creates the illusion of motion using 1,200 fountains with high-definition projections on mist screens.

Traditional animation (or classical animation, cel animation, hand-drawn animation, or 2D animation) is an animation technique in which each frame is drawn by hand.

- Traditional animation

Limited animation is a process in the overall technique of traditional animation of creating animations that does not redraw entire frames but variably reuses common parts between frames.

- Limited animation

In traditional animation, images are drawn or painted by hand on transparent celluloid sheets to be photographed and exhibited on film.

- Animation

China, Czechoslovakia / Czech Republic, Italy, France, and Belgium were other countries that more than occasionally released feature films, while Japan became a true powerhouse of animation production, with its own recognizable and influential anime style of effective limited animation.

- Animation

This is known as limited animation. The process was popularized in theatrical cartoons by United Productions of America and used in most television animation, especially that of Hanna-Barbera.

- Traditional animation
Painting with acrylic paint on the reverse side of an already inked cel, here placed on the original animation drawing

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A frame from Namakura Gatana (1917), the oldest surviving Japanese animated short film made for cinemas


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A frame from Namakura Gatana (1917), the oldest surviving Japanese animated short film made for cinemas
Frame from the opening sequence of Tezuka's 1963 TV series Astro Boy
Anime artists employ many distinct visual styles. Clockwise from the top left: Dead Leaves, FLAG, Serial Experiments Lain, M⊙NS†ER, Mind Game, Lucky☆Star, Cat Soup, and Tengen Toppa Gurren Lagann.
Same character portrayed in different anime styles.
Akihabara district of Tokyo is popular with anime and manga fans as well as otaku subculture in Japan
Cosplay of Madoka Kaname and Kyubey from Puella Magi Madoka Magica during Tracon 2013 event at the Tampere Hall in Tampere, Finland.
Anime character design is diverse, but often incorporates common elements depending on the target demographic and era. These are representative samples. Clockwise from the top left: Ashita no Joe (1970), Macross: Do You Remember Love? (1984), Ghost in the Shell (1995), K-On! (2009), Your Name (2016), The Hidden Dungeon Only I Can Enter (2021), Fruits Basket (2001), and Rurouni Kenshin (1996).

Anime (アニメ) is a Japanese term for animation.

It suffered competition from foreign producers, such as Disney, and many animators, including Noburō Ōfuji and Yasuji Murata, continued to work with cheaper cutout animation rather than cel animation.

Originally intended as temporary measures to allow him to produce material on a tight schedule with an inexperienced staff, many of his limited animation practices came to define the medium's style.


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The former Hanna-Barbera building at 3400 Cahuenga Boulevard West in Hollywood, seen in a 2007 photograph: The small yellow structure (lower right) was originally the "guard shack" for the property entrance to the east of the building.
Sherman Oaks Galleria in 2002. The building where Hanna-Barbera and Warner Bros. Animation were located from 1998 to 2001 is visible on the right.
Logo used on Warner Bros.-branded HB material since 2001

Hanna-Barbera Cartoons, Inc. was an American animation studio and production company that produced animated and live-action programming until 2001.

To keep within these tighter budgets, Hanna-Barbera furthered the concept of limited animation (also called "planned animation") practiced and popularized by the United Productions of America (UPA) studio, which also once had a partnership with Columbia Pictures.

Likewise, Hanna-Barbera was perhaps the first proponent of digital ink and paint, a process wherein animators' drawings were scanned into computers and colored using software.