A report on Animation

Nr. 10 in the reworked second series of Stampfer's stroboscopic discs published by Trentsensky & Vieweg in 1833.
A projecting praxinoscope, from 1882, here shown superimposing an animated figure on a separately projected background scene
Fantasmagorie (1908) by Émile Cohl
Italian-Argentine cartoonist Quirino Cristiani showing the cut and articulated figure of his satirical character El Peludo (based on President Yrigoyen) patented in 1916 for the realization of his films, including the world's first animated feature film El Apóstol.
An example of traditional animation, a horse animated by rotoscoping from Eadweard Muybridge's 19th-century photos.
A clay animation scene from a Finnish television commercial
A 2D animation of two circles joined by a chain
World of Color hydrotechnics at Disney California Adventure creates the illusion of motion using 1,200 fountains with high-definition projections on mist screens.

Method in which figures are manipulated to appear as moving images.

- Animation
Nr. 10 in the reworked second series of Stampfer's stroboscopic discs published by Trentsensky & Vieweg in 1833.

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Theatrical release poster by Drew Struzan

An American Tail

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Theatrical release poster by Drew Struzan
Executive producer Steven Spielberg in 2017

An American Tail is a 1986 American animated musical adventure film directed by Don Bluth from a screenplay by Judy Freudberg and Tony Geiss and a story by David Kirschner, Freudberg and Geiss.

A scene from "What a Night for a Knight", the first episode of Scooby-Doo, Where Are You!; clockwise from top: Shaggy Rogers, Fred Jones, Scooby-Doo, Velma Dinkley, and Daphne Blake

Scooby-Doo

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A scene from "What a Night for a Knight", the first episode of Scooby-Doo, Where Are You!; clockwise from top: Shaggy Rogers, Fred Jones, Scooby-Doo, Velma Dinkley, and Daphne Blake
Every episode of the original Scooby-Doo format contains a penultimate scene in which the heroes unmask the seemingly supernatural antagonist to reveal a real person in a costume, as in this scene from "Nowhere to Hyde", an episode of Scooby-Doo, Where Are You! originally aired on CBS on September 12, 1970.
A 1968 Chevrolet Sportvan 108 painted to look like The Mystery Machine from Scooby-Doo. A number of Scooby fans have decorated vans in this fashion.
The Mystery Machine at San Diego Comic-Con International in 2013

Scooby-Doo is an American animated media franchise comprising many animated television series produced from 1969 to the present, as well as their derivative media.

Koko the Clown in Snow-White (1933), animation by Roland Crandall.

Koko the Clown

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Koko the Clown in Snow-White (1933), animation by Roland Crandall.
Koko the Clown in KoKo's Showtime (1924)
Koko the Clown in KoKo's Showtime (1924)

Koko the Clown is an animated character created by Max Fleischer.

Depending on the frequency of flash, the element appears motionless or rotating in reverse direction

Stroboscopic effect

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Visual phenomenon caused by aliasing that occurs when continuous rotational or other cyclic motion is represented by a series of short or instantaneous samples at a sampling rate close to the period of the motion.

Visual phenomenon caused by aliasing that occurs when continuous rotational or other cyclic motion is represented by a series of short or instantaneous samples at a sampling rate close to the period of the motion.

Depending on the frequency of flash, the element appears motionless or rotating in reverse direction
Figure 1: Stroboscopic effect resulting from a moving screwdriver lit with a square-waveform modulated light source with a modulation frequency of 100 Hz, duty cycle of 50 % and 100 % modulation (SVM = 4,9); small photo inset shows absence of stroboscopic effect if screwdriver is not moved
Figure 2: Stroboscopic effect contrast threshold function (see Visibility)
Figure 3: Generic setup to test lighting equipment for its stroboscopic effect performance.

Stroboscopic principles, and their ability to create an illusion of motion, underlie the theory behind animation, film, and other moving pictures.

19th century magic lantern with printed slide inserted (upright, so when lit, the lantern projected an inverted picture)

Magic lantern

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Early type of image projector that used pictures—paintings, prints, or photographs—on transparent plates , one or more lenses, and a light source.

Early type of image projector that used pictures—paintings, prints, or photographs—on transparent plates , one or more lenses, and a light source.

19th century magic lantern with printed slide inserted (upright, so when lit, the lantern projected an inverted picture)
Magic lantern slide by Carpenter and Westley
A page of Willem 's Gravesande's 1720 book Physices Elementa Mathematica with Jan van Musschenbroek's magic lantern projecting a monster. The depicted lantern is one of the oldest known preserved examples, and is in the collection of Museum Boerhaave, Leiden
A paper rimmed mass-produced slide
Illustration of Kircher's Steganographic mirror in his 1645 book Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae
A sketch of the lantern configuration (without a slide) from Huygens' letter to Pierre Petit (11 December 1664)
Huygens' 1659 sketches for a projection of Death taking off his head
Huygens' 1694 laterna magica sketch, showing: "speculum cavum (hollow mirror). lucerna (lamp). lens vitrea (glass lens). pictura pellucida (transparent picture). lens altera (other lens). paries (wall)."
Walgensten's magic lantern as illustrated in Claude Dechales Cursus seu mundus mathematicus - Tomus secundus (1674)
Illustration of an early southern German lantern from Johann Sturm, Collegium Experimentale (1677)
Illustration from Kircher's 1671 Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae - projection of hellfire or purgatory
Illustration from Kircher's 1671 Ars Magna Lucis et Umbrae - projection of Death
Illustration of a lantern slide depicting Bacchus in Sturm's Collegium experimentale sive curiosum (1677)
1737 etching/engraving of an organ grinder with a magic lantern on her back by Anne Claude de Caylus (after Edme Bouchardon)
Mice jump into the mouth of a sleeping bearded man on a popular mechanical slide from circa 1870.
Mechanical slides for a magic lantern as illustrated in Petrus van Musschenbroek's Beginsels Der Natuurkunde (second edition 1739)
A stereopticon magic lantern
Slide with a fantoccini trapeze artist and a chromatrope border design (circa 1880)
Advertisement with picture of a triple lantern / dissolving view apparatus (1886)
Interpretation of Robertson's Fantasmagorie from F. Marion's L'Optique (1867)
Huygens' 1659 sketches for a projection of Death taking off his head

Christiaan Huygens' 1659 sketches (see above) suggest he intended to animate the skeleton to have it take off its head and place it back on its neck.

United Productions of America

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United Productions of America, better known as UPA, was an American animation studio active from the 1940s through the 1970s.

A still from the film

Fantasmagorie (1908 film)

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1908 French animated film by Émile Cohl.

1908 French animated film by Émile Cohl.

A still from the film
Émile Cohl

It is one of the earliest examples of traditional (hand-drawn) animation, and considered by film historians to be the first animated cartoon.

Theatrical release poster

Akira (1988 film)

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1988 Japanese animated cyberpunk action film directed by Katsuhiro Otomo, produced by Ryōhei Suzuki and Shunzō Katō, and written by Otomo and Izo Hashimoto, based on Otomo's 1982 manga of the same name.

1988 Japanese animated cyberpunk action film directed by Katsuhiro Otomo, produced by Ryōhei Suzuki and Shunzō Katō, and written by Otomo and Izo Hashimoto, based on Otomo's 1982 manga of the same name.

Theatrical release poster
Geography of Neo-Tokyo (2019). Notice the amount of reclaimed land in the middle of Tokyo Bay.
The "Akira slide" scene. It's regarded as one of the most iconic anime scenes, widely imitated and referenced in many works of animation, film and television.

It is widely regarded by critics as one of the greatest films ever made in the animation, action and science fiction genres, as well as a landmark in Japanese animation.

Theatrical release poster

Allegro Non Troppo

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Theatrical release poster

Allegro non troppo is a 1976 Italian animated film directed by Bruno Bozzetto.

Annie Awards

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The Annie Awards are accolades which the Los Angeles branch of the International Animated Film Association, ASIFA-Hollywood, has presented each year since 1972 to recognize excellence in animation shown in cinema and television.