Animism

animistanimisticanimistsnature spiritsIndigenous religionsAnimal spiritanimal spiritsanimist religionanimistic beliefsspirit
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence.wikipedia
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Soul

soulsspirithuman soul
Animism (from Latin anima, "breath, spirit, life") is the religious belief that objects, places and creatures all possess a distinct spiritual essence. Animism encompasses the beliefs that all material phenomena have agency, that there exists no hard and fast distinction between the spiritual and physical (or material) world and that soul or spirit or sentience exists not only in humans, but also in other animals, plants, rocks, geographic features such as mountains or rivers or other entities of the natural environment: water sprites, vegetation deities, tree sprites, ... . Animism may further attribute a life force to abstract concepts such as words, true names or metaphors in mythology. He adopted the term "animism" from the writings of the German scientist Georg Ernst Stahl, who, in 1708, had developed the term animismus as a biological theory that souls formed the vital principle and that the normal phenomena of life and the abnormal phenomena of disease could be traced to spiritual causes.
This belief is called animism.

Modern Paganism

NeopaganNeopaganismneo-pagan
Some members of the non-tribal world also consider themselves animists (such as author Daniel Quinn, sculptor Lawson Oyekan and many contemporary Pagans).
Polytheism, animism and pantheism are common features in Pagan theology.

Edward Burnett Tylor

Edward TylorE. B. TylorEdward B. Tylor
The currently accepted definition of animism was only developed in the late 19th century (1871) by Sir Edward Tylor, who created it as "one of anthropology's earliest concepts, if not the first".
Tylor reintroduced the term animism (faith in the individual soul or anima of all things and natural manifestations) into common use.

Anthropology of religion

anthropologist of religionanthropologyreligion
Animism is used in the anthropology of religion as a term for the belief system of many indigenous peoples, especially in contrast to the relatively more recent development of organised religions.

Daniel Quinn

Some members of the non-tribal world also consider themselves animists (such as author Daniel Quinn, sculptor Lawson Oyekan and many contemporary Pagans).
It is designed to be a look through the animist's eyes in seven short tales; Quinn first explores the idea of animism as the original worldwide religion and as his own dogma-free belief system in The Story of B and his autobiography, Providence: The Story of a Fifty-Year Vision Quest.

Spirit

spiritsspiritual beingruach
Animism encompasses the beliefs that all material phenomena have agency, that there exists no hard and fast distinction between the spiritual and physical (or material) world and that soul or spirit or sentience exists not only in humans, but also in other animals, plants, rocks, geographic features such as mountains or rivers or other entities of the natural environment: water sprites, vegetation deities, tree sprites, ... . Animism may further attribute a life force to abstract concepts such as words, true names or metaphors in mythology.

Georg Ernst Stahl

Georg StahlStahlGeorge Stahl
He adopted the term "animism" from the writings of the German scientist Georg Ernst Stahl, who, in 1708, had developed the term animismus as a biological theory that souls formed the vital principle and that the normal phenomena of life and the abnormal phenomena of disease could be traced to spiritual causes.
Stahl professed an animistic system, in opposition to the materialism of Hermann Boerhaave and Friedrich Hoffmann.

Nurit Bird-David

Hallowell's approach influenced the work of anthropologist Nurit Bird-David, who produced a scholarly article reassessing the idea of animism in 1999.
She is best known for her study of the Nayaka hunter-gatherers in South India, upon which she based much of her writings on animism, relational epistemology, and indigenous small-scale communities, and which later inspired additional fieldwork and insights on home-making in contemporary industrial societies, and the theoretical concept of scale in anthropology and other social sciences.

Nature worship

natural religionnature godnature spirits
However, the term had also been claimed by religious groups – namely indigenous communities and nature worshipers – who felt that it aptly described their own beliefs, and who in some cases actively identified as "animists".
Nature worship is often considered the primitive source of modern religious beliefs and can be found in theism, panentheism, pantheism, deism, polytheism, animism, totemism, shamanism, paganism.

Mun (religion)

MunBongthingBongthingism
Mun or Munism (also called Bongthingism) is the traditional polytheistic, animist, shamanistic, and syncretic religion of the Lepcha people.

Shinto

ShintoismShintōShintoist
The link between the kami and the natural world has led to Shinto being considered animistic and pantheistic.

Korean shamanism

ShamanismshamanMuism
Korean shamanism or Korean folk religion, also known as S h inism or Sinism (신교, Hanja 神敎; S h ingyo or S h inkyo, "religion of the spirits/gods") or S h indo (신도; Hanja: 神道, "way of the spirits/gods"), is the polytheistic and animistic ethnic religion of Korea which dates back to prehistory and consists in the worship of gods (신 s h in) and ancestors (조상 josang) as well as nature spirits.

Ryukyuan religion

Nirai KanaiRyūkyūan religionKijimunaa
Some of its beliefs, such as those concerning genius loci spirits and many other beings classified between gods and humans, are indicative of its ancient animistic roots, as is its concern with mabui, or life essence.

Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia

Arabian mythologyArabianPolytheism
Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia included indigenous animistic-polytheistic beliefs, as well as Christianity, Judaism, Mandaeism, and Iranian religions of Zoroastrianism, Mithraism, and Manichaeism.

Myth

mythologymythologicalmyths
Animism encompasses the beliefs that all material phenomena have agency, that there exists no hard and fast distinction between the spiritual and physical (or material) world and that soul or spirit or sentience exists not only in humans, but also in other animals, plants, rocks, geographic features such as mountains or rivers or other entities of the natural environment: water sprites, vegetation deities, tree sprites, ... . Animism may further attribute a life force to abstract concepts such as words, true names or metaphors in mythology.
Unable to conceive impersonal natural laws, early humans tried to explain natural phenomena by attributing souls to inanimate objects, giving rise to animism.

Traditional African religions

African Traditional ReligionTraditional African religionAfrican mythology
Most religions can be described as Animism with various polytheistic and pantheistic aspects.

Polytheism

polytheisticpolytheistspolytheist
Polytheism cannot be cleanly separated from the animist beliefs prevalent in most folk religions.

Kalash people

KalashKalashaKalasha people
They are also considered to be Pakistan's smallest ethnoreligious group, practising a religion which many authors characterise as a form of animism, and others regard it as a derivative of the pre-Vedic ancient Indo-Aryan religion, which in turn is described by some as "a form of ancient Hinduism".

Shamanism

shamanshamansshamanic
Shamanism, in this view, is an everyday attempt to influence spirits of ancestors and animals by mirroring their behaviours as the hunter does his prey.
The use of totemic items such as rocks with special powers and an animating spirit is common.

Dravidian folk religion

DravidianDravidian ReligionDravidian religions
The Dravidian folk religion is based on the native South Asia n animism.

Inuit

InukInuit peopleEskimos
Certain indigenous religious groups such as the Australian Aboriginals are more typically totemic, whereas others like the Inuit are more typically animistic in their worldview.
The Inuit practiced a form of shamanism based on animist principles.

Hylozoism

all matter to be alivefree will which living thingsHylo-Zoism
Whereas animism tends to view life as taking the form of discrete spirits, and panpsychism tends to refer to strictly philosophical views like that of Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz, hylozoism refers largely to views such as those of the earliest Greek philosophers (6th and 5th centuries BC), who treated the magnet as alive because of its attractive powers (Thales), or air as divine (Anaximenes), perhaps because of its apparently spontaneous power of movement, or because of its essentiality for life in animals.

Personhood

personspersonPersonhood USA
For the Ojibwe encountered by Hallowell, personhood did not require human-likeness, but rather humans were perceived as being like other persons, who for instance included rock persons and bear persons.
In animistic religion, animals, plants, and other entities may be persons or deities.

Sub-Saharan Africa

sub-SaharanSub Saharan AfricaSub-Saharan African
Generally, traditional African religions are united by a ancient complex animism and ancestor worship.

Dravidian peoples

DravidianDravidiansDravidian people
Ancient Dravidian religion constituted of a animistic and non-Vedic form of religion which may have influenced the Āgamas, Vedic and non-Vedic texts which post-date the Vedic texts.