Ankara

AncyraAnkara, TurkeyAngoraAnkara Metropolitan MunicipalityA'''nkaraAhlatlıbelAnkara ASAnkara MunicipalityAnkara-based clubAnkyra
Ankara (, also, ), historically known as Ancyra and Angora (, also ), is the capital of Turkey.wikipedia
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List of largest cities and towns in Turkey

citycitiesList of cities in Turkey
With a population of 4,587,558 in the urban center (2014) and 5,150,072 in its province (2015), it is Turkey's second largest city after Istanbul (the former imperial capital), having outranked İzmir in the 20th century.

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk

AtatürkMustafa KemalKemal Atatürk
On 23 April 1920 the Grand National Assembly of Turkey was established in Ankara, which became the headquarters of Atatürk and the Turkish National Movement during the Turkish War of Independence.
Establishing a provisional government in the present-day Turkish capital Ankara, he defeated the forces sent by the Allies, thus emerging victorious from what was later referred to as the Turkish War of Independence.

Constantinople

ConstantinopolitanConstantinopolisConstantinopole
Ankara became the new Turkish capital upon the establishment of the Republic on 29 October 1923, succeeding in this role the former Turkish capital Istanbul (Constantinople) following the fall of the Ottoman Empire.
In 1923 the capital of Turkey, the successor state of the Ottoman Empire, was moved to Ankara and the name Constantinople was officially changed to Istanbul; the city is still referred to as Constantinople in Greek-speaking sources.

Grand National Assembly of Turkey

Grand National AssemblyParliamentTurkish Parliament
On 23 April 1920 the Grand National Assembly of Turkey was established in Ankara, which became the headquarters of Atatürk and the Turkish National Movement during the Turkish War of Independence.
It was founded in Ankara on 23 April 1920 in the midst of the National Campaign.

List of national capitals

CapitalList of national capitals in alphabetical orderAmerican capital
Ankara (, also, ), historically known as Ancyra and Angora (, also ), is the capital of Turkey.

Angora

Angora (disambiguation)
The form "Angora" is preserved in the names of breeds of many different kinds of animals, and in the names of several locations in the US (see Angora).

Monumentum Ancyranum

Temple of AugustusTemple of Augustus and RomeTemple of Augustus in Ancyra
Although few of its outworks have survived, there are well-preserved examples of Roman and Ottoman architecture throughout the city, the most remarkable being the 20 Temple of Augustus and Rome that boasts the Monumentum Ancyranum, the inscription recording the Res Gestae Divi Augusti.
The Monumentum Ancyranum (Latin 'Monument of Ancyra') or Temple of Augustus and Rome in Ancyra is an Augusteum in Ankara (ancient Ancyra), Turkey.

Turkish Angora

Angora catAngora catsAngora
The city gave its name to the Angora wool shorn from Angora rabbits, the long-haired Angora goat (the source of mohair), and the Angora cat.
Turkish Angoras are one of the ancient, natural breeds of cat, having originated in central Turkey, in the Ankara region.

Midas

King MidasMidas touchThe Golden Touch
In Phrygian tradition, King Midas was venerated as the founder of Ancyra, but Pausanias mentions that the city was actually far older, which accords with present archaeological knowledge.
The Phrygian city Midaeum was presumably named after this Midas, and this is probably also the Midas that according to Pausanias founded Ancyra.

Gordium

GordionGordium archaeology site
The city grew significantly in size and importance under the Phrygians starting around 1000 BC, and experienced a large expansion following the mass migration from Gordion, (the capital of Phrygia), after an earthquake which severely damaged that city around that time.
It was located at the site of modern Yassıhüyük, about 70–80 km southwest of Ankara (capital of Turkey), in the immediate vicinity of Polatlı district.

Pessinus

PessinosArchdiocese of PessinusPessinous
Other centers were Pessinos, today's Balhisar, for the Trocmi tribe, and Tavium, to the east of Ankara, for the Tolstibogii tribe.
Pessinus, the present modern Turkish village of Ballıhisar, is centred 13 km from Sivrihisar a small town on the Ankara-Eskişehir road at the junction with the Afyon-İzmir road, 120 km southwest of Ankara.

Ankara River

Ankara Çayı
A small river, the Ankara Çayı, ran through the center of the Roman town.
Ankara River, (Ankara Çayı) is a small river that runs through the city of Ankara, Turkey.

Zenobia

Queen ZenobiaQueen Zenobia of Palmyraal-Zabba'/Bat-Zabbai/Zenobia
For about a decade, the town was one of the western outposts of one of Palmyrean empress Zenobia in the Syrian Desert, who took advantage of a period of weakness and disorder in the Roman Empire to set up a short-lived state of her own.
By mid-271 her realm extended from Ancyra, central Anatolia, to southern Egypt, although she remained nominally subordinate to Rome.

Galatia (Roman province)

GalatiaGalatia SalutarisGalatia Prima
In 25 BC, Emperor Augustus raised it to the status of a polis and made it the capital city of the Roman province of Galatia.
It was established by the first emperor, Augustus (sole rule 30 BC – 14 AD), in 25 BC, covering most of formerly independent Celtic Galatia, with its capital at Ancyra.

Eskişehir

EskisehirEskishehirEskisehir, Turkey
The tetrarchy, a system of multiple (up to four) emperors introduced by Diocletian (284–305), seems to have engaged in a substantial programme of rebuilding and of road construction from Ankara westwards to Germe and Dorylaeum (now Eskişehir).
The city is 233 km to the west of Ankara, 330 km to the southeast of Istanbul and 78 km to the northeast of Kütahya.

Hacettepe University

HacettepeHacettepe University State ConservatoryUniversity of Hacettepe
To the west, the Roman city extended until the area of the Gençlik Park and Railway Station, while on the southern side of the hill, it may have extended downwards as far as the site presently occupied by Hacettepe University.
Hacettepe University is a major state university in Ankara, Turkey.

Basil of Ancyra

Bishop Marcellus of Ancyra and Basil of Ancyra were active in the theological controversies of their day, and the city was the site of no less than three church synods in 314, 358 and 375, the latter two in favour of Arianism.
Basil of Ancyra, was a Christian priest in Ancyra, Galatia during the 4th century.

Res Gestae Divi Augusti

Res Gestaeautobiographical account of the deeds and administrationautobiography
Although few of its outworks have survived, there are well-preserved examples of Roman and Ottoman architecture throughout the city, the most remarkable being the 20 Temple of Augustus and Rome that boasts the Monumentum Ancyranum, the inscription recording the Res Gestae Divi Augusti.
Many copies of the text were made and carved in stone on monuments or temples throughout the Roman Empire, some of which have survived; most notably, almost a full copy, written in the original Latin and a Greek translation was preserved on a temple to Augustus in Ancyra (the Monumentum Ancyranum of Ankara, Turkey); others have been found at Apollonia and Antioch, both in Pisidia.

Valens

Emperor ValensFlavius Julius ValensFlavius Valens
364–375) was acclaimed emperor at Ancyra, and in the next year his brother Valens (r.
In February 364, reigning Emperor Jovian, while hastening to Constantinople to secure his claim to the throne, died in his sleep during a stop at Dadastana, 100 miles east of Ankara.

Phrygia

ancient PhrygiaPhrygia PacatianaPhrygia Salutaris
The city grew significantly in size and importance under the Phrygians starting around 1000 BC, and experienced a large expansion following the mass migration from Gordion, (the capital of Phrygia), after an earthquake which severely damaged that city around that time. Ankara is a very old city with various Hittite, Phrygian, Hellenistic, Roman, Byzantine, and Ottoman archaeological sites. The region's history can be traced back to the Bronze Age Hattic civilization, which was succeeded in the 2nd millennium BC by the Hittites, in the 10th century BC by the Phrygians, and later by the Lydians, Persians, Greeks, Galatians, Romans, Byzantines, and Turks (the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm, the Ottoman Empire and finally republican Turkey).
This interpretation also gets support from Greek legends about the founding of Phrygia's main city Gordium by Gordias and of Ancyra by Midas, which suggest that Gordium and Ancyra were believed to date from the distant past before the Trojan War.

Synod of Ancyra

Council of AncyraAncyra314
Bishop Marcellus of Ancyra and Basil of Ancyra were active in the theological controversies of their day, and the city was the site of no less than three church synods in 314, 358 and 375, the latter two in favour of Arianism.
The Synod of Ancyra was an ecclesiastical council, or synod, convened in Ancyra (modern-day Ankara, the capital of Turkey), the seat of the Roman administration for the province of Galatia, in 314.

Angora rabbit

AngoraAngora RabbitsFrench Angora
The city gave its name to the Angora wool shorn from Angora rabbits, the long-haired Angora goat (the source of mohair), and the Angora cat.
The Angora is said to have originated in Ankara (historically known as Angora), in present-day Turkey, and is known to have been brought to France in 1723.

Galatia

ancient GalatiaGalatianAsia Minor
The region's history can be traced back to the Bronze Age Hattic civilization, which was succeeded in the 2nd millennium BC by the Hittites, in the 10th century BC by the Phrygians, and later by the Lydians, Persians, Greeks, Galatians, Romans, Byzantines, and Turks (the Seljuk Sultanate of Rûm, the Ottoman Empire and finally republican Turkey).
Its capital was Ancyra (i.e. Ankara, today the capital of modern Turkey).

Battle of Ankara

Ankara20 July 1402defeated
Timur defeated Bayezid I at the Battle of Ankara in 1402 and took the city, but in 1403 Angora was again under Ottoman control.
The Battle of Ankara or Angora was fought on 20 July 1402 at the Tchubuk plain near Angora between the forces of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I (Bajazet) and Timur (Tamerlane), ruler of the Timurid Empire.

Istanbul

İstanbulConstantinopleIstanbul, Turkey
With a population of 4,587,558 in the urban center (2014) and 5,150,072 in its province (2015), it is Turkey's second largest city after Istanbul (the former imperial capital), having outranked İzmir in the 20th century. Ankara became the new Turkish capital upon the establishment of the Republic on 29 October 1923, succeeding in this role the former Turkish capital Istanbul (Constantinople) following the fall of the Ottoman Empire.
In 1923, after the Turkish War of Independence, Ankara was chosen as the new Turkish capital, and the city's name was changed to Istanbul.