Ankyrin

ankyrin repeatsANK2ankyrin repeats domainankyrins
Ankyrins are a family of proteins that mediate the attachment of integral membrane proteins to the spectrin-actin based membrane cytoskeleton.wikipedia
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Spectrin

β-spectrin
Ankyrins are a family of proteins that mediate the attachment of integral membrane proteins to the spectrin-actin based membrane cytoskeleton. Ankyrins contain four functional domains: an N-terminal domain that contains 24 tandem ankyrin repeats, a central domain that binds to spectrin, a death domain that binds to proteins involved in apoptosis, and a C-terminal regulatory domain that is highly variable between different ankyrin proteins.
In humans, association with the intracellular face of the plasma membrane is by indirect interaction, through direct interactions with protein 4.1 and ankyrin, with the transmembrane ion transporter band 3 Protein 4.2 binds the spectrin tail region to the transmembrane protein glycophorin A.

Ankyrin repeat

ANKANK repeatAnkA
Ankyrins contain four functional domains: an N-terminal domain that contains 24 tandem ankyrin repeats, a central domain that binds to spectrin, a death domain that binds to proteins involved in apoptosis, and a C-terminal regulatory domain that is highly variable between different ankyrin proteins.
Most proteins that contain the motif have four to six repeats, although its namesake ankyrin contains 24, and the largest known number of repeats is 34, predicted in a protein expressed by Giardia lamblia.

ANK1

ankyrin-1small ankyrin 1
Ankyrins are encoded by three genes (ANK1, ANK2 and ANK3) in mammals.
The protein encoded by this gene, Ankyrin 1, is the prototype of the ankyrin family, was first discovered in erythrocytes, but since has also been found in brain and muscles.

ANK3

ankyrin-3ankyrin Gankyrin-G
Ankyrins are encoded by three genes (ANK1, ANK2 and ANK3) in mammals.
Ankyrin-3 (ANK-3), also known as ankyrin-G, is a protein from ankyrin family that in humans is encoded by the ANK3 gene.

ANK2

ankyrin B
Ankyrins are encoded by three genes (ANK1, ANK2 and ANK3) in mammals.
Ankyrin-B is a member of the ankyrin family of proteins, and is a modular protein which is composed of three structural domains: an N-terminal domain containing multiple ankyrin repeats; a central region with a highly conserved spectrin binding domain and death domain; and a C-terminal regulatory domain which is the least conserved and subject to variation, and determines ankyrin-B activity.

Band 3 anion transport protein

Band 3SLC4A1anion exchange protein 1, erythrocyte
In erythrocytes, AnkyrinR links the membrane skeleton to the Cl − /HCO 3 − anion exchanger.

Hereditary spherocytosis

Minkowski-Chauffard syndromespherocytosis, hereditaryCongenital spherocytic anemia
Individuals with reduced or defective ankyrinR have a form of hemolytic anemia termed hereditary spherocytosis.
Hereditary spherocytosis is caused by a variety of molecular defects in the genes that code for the red blood cell proteins spectrin (alpha and beta), ankyrin, band 3 protein, protein 4.2, and other red blood cell membrane proteins:

DARPin

Designed Ankyrin Repeat Proteins (DARPins)
* DARPin (designed ankyrin repeat protein), an engineered antibody mimetic based on the structure of ankyrin repeats
They are derived from natural ankyrin proteins, one of the most common classes of binding proteins in nature, which are responsible for diverse functions such as cell signaling, regulation and structural integrity of the cell.

KAHRP

It has been suggested that Ankyrin 1 interacts with KAHRP (shown via selective pull-downs, SPR and ELISA).
Instead, KAHRP was shown to interact with Ankyrin, more precisely the D3 subunit of the Membrane-binding domain of Ankyrin type 1.

Integral membrane protein

integral membrane proteinsintegral proteinintegral
Ankyrins are a family of proteins that mediate the attachment of integral membrane proteins to the spectrin-actin based membrane cytoskeleton.

Actin

F-actinG-actinactin cytoskeleton
Ankyrins are a family of proteins that mediate the attachment of integral membrane proteins to the spectrin-actin based membrane cytoskeleton.

Cell membrane

plasma membranemembranecell membranes
This linkage is required to maintain the integrity of the plasma membranes and to anchor specific ion channels, ion exchangers and ion transporters in the plasma membrane.

Ion channel

ion channelschannelchannels
This linkage is required to maintain the integrity of the plasma membranes and to anchor specific ion channels, ion exchangers and ion transporters in the plasma membrane.

Ion exchange

ion-exchangecation exchangeanion exchanger
This linkage is required to maintain the integrity of the plasma membranes and to anchor specific ion channels, ion exchangers and ion transporters in the plasma membrane.

Ion transporter

ion transportion pumpion transporter (IT) superfamily
This linkage is required to maintain the integrity of the plasma membranes and to anchor specific ion channels, ion exchangers and ion transporters in the plasma membrane.

Protein domain

domainsdomainstructural domain
Ankyrins contain four functional domains: an N-terminal domain that contains 24 tandem ankyrin repeats, a central domain that binds to spectrin, a death domain that binds to proteins involved in apoptosis, and a C-terminal regulatory domain that is highly variable between different ankyrin proteins.

Apoptosis

apoptoticprogrammed cell deathcell death
Ankyrins contain four functional domains: an N-terminal domain that contains 24 tandem ankyrin repeats, a central domain that binds to spectrin, a death domain that binds to proteins involved in apoptosis, and a C-terminal regulatory domain that is highly variable between different ankyrin proteins.

Amino acid

amino acidsresiduesresidue
These non-specific interactions give ankyrin the property to recognise a large range of proteins as the sequence doesn't have to be conserved, just the properties of the amino acids.

Alternative splicing

alternatively splicedtranscript variantssplice variant
Each gene in turn produces multiple proteins through alternative splicing.

Hemolytic anemia

haemolytic anaemiahemolytic anaemiahemolytic disease
Individuals with reduced or defective ankyrinR have a form of hemolytic anemia termed hereditary spherocytosis.

CD44

antigens, cd44CD44 + CD44 antigens
Ankyrin 1 links membrane receptor CD44 to the inositol triphosphate receptor and the cytoskeleton.

Inositol trisphosphate receptor

IP3 receptorIP 3 receptorinositol triphosphate receptor
Ankyrin 1 links membrane receptor CD44 to the inositol triphosphate receptor and the cytoskeleton.

Cytoskeleton

cytoskeletalcytoskeletal proteinscytoskeletal protein
Ankyrin 1 links membrane receptor CD44 to the inositol triphosphate receptor and the cytoskeleton.

Sepiapterin reductase

SPR
It has been suggested that Ankyrin 1 interacts with KAHRP (shown via selective pull-downs, SPR and ELISA).

ELISA

enzyme-linked immunosorbent assayenzyme immunoassayenzyme linked immunosorbent assay
It has been suggested that Ankyrin 1 interacts with KAHRP (shown via selective pull-downs, SPR and ELISA).