Anna Tumarkin

Tumarkin, Anna
Anna Tumarkin (А́нна-Э́стер Паўлаўна Тума́ркін, אנה-אסתר פבלובנה טומרקין, 16 February 1875 – 7 August 1951) was a Russian-born, naturalized Swiss academic, who was the first woman to become a professor of philosophy at the University of Bern.wikipedia
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University of Bern

University of BerneBernUniversität Bern
Anna Tumarkin (А́нна-Э́стер Паўлаўна Тума́ркін, אנה-אסתר פבלובנה טומרקין, 16 February 1875 – 7 August 1951) was a Russian-born, naturalized Swiss academic, who was the first woman to become a professor of philosophy at the University of Bern.
The Russian-born Anna Tumarkin was the first female professor in Europe with the right to examine doctoral and post-doctoral students.

Dubrowna

DubroŭnaDubrovnoDubrovna
Anna-Ester Pavlovna Tumarkin was born on 16 February 1875 in Dubrowna, in the Mogilev Governorate of the Russian Empire to Sofia (née Gertsenshtein or Herzenstein) and Poltiel Moiseevich Tumarkin (also shown as Pavel).

Ida Hoff

Ida
The two became friends, making a habit of sitting together at lectures, and Hoff introduced Tumarkin to her daughter, Ida, who was five years younger than Tumarkin.
Anna Tumarkin (1875-1951) became a distinguished Swiss philosopher.

Mogilev Governorate

MogilevGovernor of MogilevGovernor of Mogilyov
Anna-Ester Pavlovna Tumarkin was born on 16 February 1875 in Dubrowna, in the Mogilev Governorate of the Russian Empire to Sofia (née Gertsenshtein or Herzenstein) and Poltiel Moiseevich Tumarkin (also shown as Pavel).

Russian Empire

RussiaImperial RussiaRussian
Anna-Ester Pavlovna Tumarkin was born on 16 February 1875 in Dubrowna, in the Mogilev Governorate of the Russian Empire to Sofia (née Gertsenshtein or Herzenstein) and Poltiel Moiseevich Tumarkin (also shown as Pavel).

Bessarabia

BasarabiaBassarabiaEastern Moldavia
Her father was a Bessarabian merchant who had been granted personal nobility.

Orthodox Judaism

OrthodoxOrthodox JewishOrthodox Jews
As an Orthodox Jew, Pavel initially refused to allow his children to study Russian, but the children gained proficiency in both Russian and German.

Russian language

RussianRussian-languageRussian:
As an Orthodox Jew, Pavel initially refused to allow his children to study Russian, but the children gained proficiency in both Russian and German.

Chișinău

ChişinăuKishinevChisinau
When she was a young child, the family relocated to Kishinev (Chișinău), capital of the Bessarabia Governorate.

Bessarabia Governorate

BessarabiaGovernorate of BessarabiaBessarabian Governorate
When she was a young child, the family relocated to Kishinev (Chișinău), capital of the Bessarabia Governorate.

Gymnasium (school)

gymnasiumgymnasiumsgymnasia
She attended the women's gymnasium and then attended normal school.

Normal school

teacher training collegeNormalnormal schools
She attended the women's gymnasium and then attended normal school.

Johann Gottfried Herder

HerderJohann Gottfried von HerderJohann Herder
Three years later, she submitted her thesis on Johann Gottfried Herder and Immanuel Kant, which she successfully defended, and passed her examinations earning her doctorate. Her lectures spanned from classic philosophers like Plato and Aristotle to more modern philosophers such as Martin Heidegger and she had a special affinity for Johann Gottfried Herder, Kant, and Baruch Spinoza.

Immanuel Kant

KantKantianKant, Immanuel
Three years later, she submitted her thesis on Johann Gottfried Herder and Immanuel Kant, which she successfully defended, and passed her examinations earning her doctorate.

Lesbian

lesbianismlesbiansSapphic
Tumarkin and the younger Hoff, would later become life-long companions, though there is no evidence one way or the other to determine if their relationship was a lesbian partnership.

Berlin

Berlin, GermanyState of BerlinGerman capital
She then moved to Berlin where she continued her studies for three years with Wilhelm Dilthey and Erich Schmidt, before returning to Bern to complete her thesis and examination for her Habilitation in 1898, becoming not only the first woman in Switzerland to complete her post-doctoral work, but the first woman in Europe.

Wilhelm Dilthey

DiltheyAnalytic psychology (Dilthey)Diltheyan
She then moved to Berlin where she continued her studies for three years with Wilhelm Dilthey and Erich Schmidt, before returning to Bern to complete her thesis and examination for her Habilitation in 1898, becoming not only the first woman in Switzerland to complete her post-doctoral work, but the first woman in Europe.

Erich Schmidt (historian)

Erich Schmidt
She then moved to Berlin where she continued her studies for three years with Wilhelm Dilthey and Erich Schmidt, before returning to Bern to complete her thesis and examination for her Habilitation in 1898, becoming not only the first woman in Switzerland to complete her post-doctoral work, but the first woman in Europe.

Habilitation

habilitatedvenia legendiHabilitationsschrift
She then moved to Berlin where she continued her studies for three years with Wilhelm Dilthey and Erich Schmidt, before returning to Bern to complete her thesis and examination for her Habilitation in 1898, becoming not only the first woman in Switzerland to complete her post-doctoral work, but the first woman in Europe.

Charles Albert Gobat

Albert Gobat
Because there was no precedent for a woman to be appointed to the faculty of history or philosophy, a letter was sent to Albert Gobat, the Director of Education for Bern to ask if there was an objection to appointing a woman as an assistant professor.

Docent

Dozentdocentsassociate professor
As he had no reservations, Tumarkin received the title Venia Docendi becoming a docent.

Lecturer

university lecturerlectureshipassistant lecturer
By 1905, she became the first woman lecturer at the University of Bern and in 1906 became an honorary professor, another first for the University of Bern.

Plato

Plato's dialoguesDialogues of PlatoPlatonic dialogues
Her lectures spanned from classic philosophers like Plato and Aristotle to more modern philosophers such as Martin Heidegger and she had a special affinity for Johann Gottfried Herder, Kant, and Baruch Spinoza.

Aristotle

AristotelianAristotelesAristote
Her lectures spanned from classic philosophers like Plato and Aristotle to more modern philosophers such as Martin Heidegger and she had a special affinity for Johann Gottfried Herder, Kant, and Baruch Spinoza.

Martin Heidegger

HeideggerHeideggerianHeidegger, Martin
Her lectures spanned from classic philosophers like Plato and Aristotle to more modern philosophers such as Martin Heidegger and she had a special affinity for Johann Gottfried Herder, Kant, and Baruch Spinoza.