Anne, Queen of Great Britain

Queen AnneAnnePrincess AnneQueen Anne of Great BritainAnne of Great BritainPrincess Anne of DenmarkAnne of EnglandQueenthe QueenAnne Stuart
Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) was the Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland between 8 March 1702 and 1 May 1707.wikipedia
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List of Scottish monarchs

King of ScotsScotlandKing of Scotland
Anne (6 February 1665 – 1 August 1714) was the Queen of England, Scotland and Ireland between 8 March 1702 and 1 May 1707.
Thus Queen Anne became the last monarch of the ancient kingdoms of Scotland and England and the first of Great Britain, although the kingdoms had shared a monarch since 1603 (see Union of the Crowns).

Kingdom of England

EnglandEnglishAnglo
On 1 May 1707, under the Acts of Union, two of her realms, the kingdoms of England and Scotland, united as a single sovereign state known as Great Britain. Her father was the younger brother of King Charles II, who ruled the three kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland, and her mother was the daughter of Lord Chancellor Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon.
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Kingdom of Great Britain

Great BritainBritishBritain
On 1 May 1707, under the Acts of Union, two of her realms, the kingdoms of England and Scotland, united as a single sovereign state known as Great Britain.
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Prince George of Denmark

Prince GeorgeGeorgeGeorge of Denmark
Despite seventeen pregnancies by her husband, Prince George of Denmark, she died without surviving issue and was the last monarch of the House of Stuart.
Prince George of Denmark and Norway, Duke of Cumberland (Jørgen; 2 April 1653 – 28 October 1708), was the husband of Queen Anne, who reigned over Great Britain from 1702 to 1714.

Mary II of England

Mary IIMaryQueen Mary II
James's suspected Roman Catholicism was unpopular in England, and on Charles's instructions Anne and her elder sister, Mary, were raised as Anglicans.
He reigned as such until his own death in 1702, when he was succeeded by Mary's sister Anne.

Acts of Union 1707

Act of UnionActs of UnionUnion
On 1 May 1707, under the Acts of Union, two of her realms, the kingdoms of England and Scotland, united as a single sovereign state known as Great Britain.
Deeper political integration had been a key policy of Queen Anne from the time she acceded to the throne in 1702.

George I of Great Britain

George IKing George IKing George
Under the Act of Settlement 1701, which excluded all Catholics, she was succeeded by her second cousin George I of the House of Hanover.
At the age of 54, after the death of his second cousin Anne, Queen of Great Britain, George ascended the British throne as the first monarch of the House of Hanover.

Act of Settlement 1701

Act of SettlementHanoverian succession1701 Act of Settlement
Under the Act of Settlement 1701, which excluded all Catholics, she was succeeded by her second cousin George I of the House of Hanover.
The act was prompted by the failure of King William III and Queen Mary II, as well as of Mary's sister Queen Anne, to produce any surviving children, and the Roman Catholic religion of all other members of the House of Stuart.

House of Stuart

StuartStuartsStewart
Despite seventeen pregnancies by her husband, Prince George of Denmark, she died without surviving issue and was the last monarch of the House of Stuart.
Upon the death of Elizabeth I of England in 1603 without heirs, the Union of the Crowns saw James IV's great grandson James VI of Scotland succeed the thrones of England and Ireland as James I. Except for the period of the Commonwealth, 1649–1660, the Stuarts were monarchs of the British Isles and its growing empire, until the death of Queen Anne in 1714.

Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon

ClarendonEdward HydeEarl of Clarendon
Her father was the younger brother of King Charles II, who ruled the three kingdoms of England, Scotland and Ireland, and her mother was the daughter of Lord Chancellor Edward Hyde, 1st Earl of Clarendon.
He was the maternal grandfather of two monarchs, Queen Mary II and Queen Anne.

Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough

Sarah ChurchillDuchess of MarlboroughSarah, Duchess of Marlborough
Her close friendship with Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough, turned sour as the result of political differences.
Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough (née Jenyns, spelled Jennings in most modern references; 5 June 1660 (Old Style) – 18 October 1744) rose to be one of the most influential women of her time through her close friendship with Anne, Queen of Great Britain.

Anne Hyde

Lady Anne HydeAnne Hyde, Duchess of YorkDuchess of York
Anne was born at 11:39 p.m. on 6 February 1665 at St James's Palace, London, the fourth child and second daughter of the Duke of York (afterwards James II and VII), and his first wife, Anne Hyde.
The two who survived to adulthood were future monarchs, Mary II and Anne.

John Churchill, 1st Duke of Marlborough

Duke of MarlboroughMarlboroughJohn Churchill
Jennings married John Churchill (the future Duke of Marlborough) in about 1678.
It was not until the accession of Queen Anne in 1702 that Marlborough reached the zenith of his powers and secured his fame and fortune.

Glorious Revolution

Revolution of 1688Revolution1688
On Charles's death in 1685, James succeeded to the throne, but just three years later he was deposed in the Glorious Revolution of 1688.
His Catholicism was of concern to many, but the fact that he had no son, and his daughters, Mary and Anne, were Protestants, was a "saving grace".

Whigs (British political party)

WhigWhigsWhig Party
During her reign, Anne favoured moderate Tory politicians, who were more likely to share her Anglican religious views than their opponents, the Whigs.
Although William's successor Anne had considerable Tory sympathies and excluded the Junto Whigs from power, after a brief and unsuccessful experiment with an exclusively Tory government she generally continued William's policy of balancing the parties, supported by her moderate Tory ministers, the Duke of Marlborough and Lord Godolphin.

Lady of the Bedchamber

Ladies of the Bedchamberstatsfrudame du palais
They were given a set of buildings, known as the Cockpit, in the Palace of Whitehall as their London residence, and Sarah Churchill was appointed one of Anne's ladies of the bedchamber.
Queen Anne appointed Sarah Churchill, Duchess of Marlborough to this position; the Duchess was widely considered an influential royal favourite.

War of the Spanish Succession

Spanish SuccessionWar of SuccessionWar of Spanish Succession
The Whigs grew more powerful during the course of the War of the Spanish Succession, until 1710 when Anne dismissed many of them from office.
When William died in March 1702, his successor Queen Anne confirmed her continuation of the Protestant succession.

Tories (British political party)

ToryToriesTory Party
During her reign, Anne favoured moderate Tory politicians, who were more likely to share her Anglican religious views than their opponents, the Whigs.
Despite the failure of their founding principles, the Tories remained a powerful political party during the reigns of the next two monarchs, particularly that of Queen Anne.

Prince William, Duke of Gloucester

Duke of Gloucesterthe Duke of GloucesterPrince William
On 24 July 1689, Anne gave birth to a son, Prince William, Duke of Gloucester, who, though ill, survived infancy.
Prince William, Duke of Gloucester (24 July 1689 – 30 July 1700) was the son of Princess Anne, later Queen of England, Ireland and Scotland from 1702, and her husband, Prince George of Denmark.

Heir presumptive

heiress presumptiveheir-presumptiveheirs presumptive
Her father, Charles's younger brother James, was thus heir presumptive to the throne.
Sophia, Electress of Hanover, was declared heir presumptive to the British thrones by the Act of Settlement 1701, but died before acceding to the throne of her distant cousin, Queen Anne.

Duke of Marlborough (title)

Duke of MarlboroughDukes of MarlboroughDukedom of Marlborough
Soon after their accession, William and Mary rewarded John Churchill by granting him the Earldom of Marlborough and Prince George was made Duke of Cumberland.
It was created by Queen Anne in 1702 for John Churchill, 1st Earl of Marlborough (1650–1722), the noted military leader.

St James's Palace

St JamesSt. Jamescourt of St. James
Anne was born at 11:39 p.m. on 6 February 1665 at St James's Palace, London, the fourth child and second daughter of the Duke of York (afterwards James II and VII), and his first wife, Anne Hyde.
Charles II, James II, Mary II and Anne were all born at the palace.

Heir apparent

heir-apparentheirs apparentheir
Anne became his heir apparent, since any children he might have by another wife were assigned to a lower place in the line of succession, and the two reconciled publicly.
William, by contrast, was to reign for life only, and his (hypothetical) children by a wife other than Mary would be placed in his original place (as Mary's first cousin) in the line of succession – after Mary's younger sister Anne.

Henry Compton (bishop)

Henry ComptonBishop Henry ComptonBishop Compton
Henry Compton, Bishop of London, was appointed as Anne's preceptor.
He was also appointed a member of the Privy Council, and entrusted with the education of the two princesses, Mary and Anne.

Mary of Modena

Queen MaryDuchess of YorkQueen
In 1673, the Duke of York's conversion to Catholicism became public, and he married a Catholic princess, Mary of Modena, who was only six-and-a-half years older than Anne.
From his first marriage to the commoner Anne Hyde, who had died in 1671, James had two daughters: Lady Mary and Lady Anne.