Anne Boleyn

Queen Anne BoleynAnneQueen AnneAnn BoleynAnne BullenBoleynBoleyn, AnneAnna BolenaAnna BullenAnne (Boleyn)
Anne Boleyn ( c. undefined 1501 – 19 May 1536) was Queen of England from 1533 to 1536 as the second wife of King Henry VIII. Their marriage, and her execution by beheading, made her a key figure in the political and religious upheaval that was the start of the English Reformation.wikipedia
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Wives of King Henry VIII

second wifesixth wifefirst wife
undefined 1501 – 19 May 1536) was Queen of England from 1533 to 1536 as the second wife of King Henry VIII.
Henry, at the time a Roman Catholic, sought the Pope's approval for an annulment on the grounds that his marriage was invalid because Catherine had first been his brother's wife, using a passage from the Old Testament (Leviticus Chapter 20 Verse 21) to justify his stance: "If a man shall take his brother’s wife, it is an impurity; he hath uncovered his brother’s nakedness; they shall be childless.” Henry had begun an affair with Anne Boleyn, who is said to have refused to become his mistress (Henry had already consummated an affair then dismissed Anne's sister, Mary Boleyn, and most historians believe that Anne wanted to avoid the same treatment). Despite the pope's refusal, Henry separated from Catherine in 1531. In the face of the Pope's continuing refusal to annul his marriage to Catherine, Henry ordered the highest church official in England, Thomas Cranmer, Archbishop of Canterbury, to convene a court to rule on the status of his marriage to Catherine.

Catherine of Aragon

Katherine of AragonQueen CatherineCatharine of Aragon
Anne returned to England in early 1522, to marry her Irish cousin James Butler, 9th Earl of Ormond; the marriage plans were broken off, and instead she secured a post at court as maid of honour to Henry VIII's wife, Catherine of Aragon.
By 1525, Henry VIII was infatuated with Anne Boleyn and dissatisfied that his marriage to Catherine had produced no surviving sons, leaving their daughter, the future Mary I of England, as heir presumptive at a time when there was no established precedent for a woman on the throne.

Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire

Thomas BoleynSir Thomas BoleynEarl of Wiltshire
Anne was the daughter of Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire, and his wife, Lady Elizabeth Howard, and was educated in the Netherlands and France, largely as a maid of honour to Queen Claude of France. Anne was the daughter of Thomas Boleyn, later Earl of Wiltshire and Earl of Ormond, and his wife, Lady Elizabeth Howard, daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk.
1477 – 12 March 1539), of Hever Castle in Kent, was an English diplomat and politician who was the father of Anne Boleyn, Queen Consort and the second wife of King Henry VIII, and was thus the maternal grandfather of Queen Elizabeth I of England.

Henry Percy, 6th Earl of Northumberland

Earl of NorthumberlandHenry PercyHarry Percy
Early in 1523 Anne was secretly betrothed to Henry Percy, son of Henry Percy, 5th Earl of Northumberland, but the betrothal was broken off when the Earl refused to support their engagement.
He is now primarily remembered as the betrothed of Anne Boleyn, whom he was forced to give up before she became involved with King Henry VIII.

Mary Boleyn

MaryLady Mary BoleynMary Boleyn Stafford
She resisted his attempts to seduce her, refusing to become his mistress, which her sister Mary had been.
1499/1500 – 19 July 1543), was the sister of English queen Anne Boleyn, whose family enjoyed considerable influence during the reign of King Henry VIII.

English Reformation

Reformationbreak with RomePre-Reformation
Their marriage, and her execution by beheading, made her a key figure in the political and religious upheaval that was the start of the English Reformation.
Anne Boleyn's own religious views were shaped by French humanists such as Jacques Lefèvre d'Étaples, whose 1512 commentaries on Paul's epistles stated that human works were irrelevant to salvation five years before Luther published the same views.

Jane Seymour

Queen Jane SeymourQueen JaneJane
Anne subsequently had three miscarriages, and by March 1536, Henry was courting Jane Seymour. According to Eric Ives, she was certainly of more noble birth than Jane Seymour, Catherine Howard, and Catherine Parr, Henry VIII's three other English wives.
She succeeded Anne Boleyn as queen consort following the latter's execution in May 1536.

Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk

Duke of NorfolkThomas HowardEarl of Surrey
On 2 May she was arrested and sent to the Tower of London, where she was tried before a jury of peers – which included Henry Percy, her former betrothed, and her own uncle Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk – and found guilty on 15 May.
He was an uncle of two of the wives of King Henry VIII, namely Anne Boleyn and Catherine Howard, both of whom were beheaded, and played a major role in the machinations affecting these royal marriages.

Cultural depictions of Anne Boleyn

Anne Boleyn in popular cultureartistic and cultural worksAnne Boleyn
Over the centuries, she has inspired, or been mentioned, in many artistic and cultural works and thereby retained her hold on the popular imagination.
Anne Boleyn, the second wife of King Henry VIII of England, has inspired or been mentioned in numerous artistic and cultural works.

Hever Castle

HeverHever Castle EstateKent and Sharpshooters Yeomanry
Cardinal Wolsey refused the match in January 1524 and Anne was sent back home to Hever Castle.
Anne Boleyn, the second queen consort of King Henry VIII of England, spent her early youth there after her father, Thomas Boleyn, inherited it in 1505.

Elizabeth Boleyn, Countess of Wiltshire

Elizabeth HowardLady Elizabeth HowardElizabeth Boleyn
Anne was the daughter of Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire, and his wife, Lady Elizabeth Howard, and was educated in the Netherlands and France, largely as a maid of honour to Queen Claude of France. Anne was the daughter of Thomas Boleyn, later Earl of Wiltshire and Earl of Ormond, and his wife, Lady Elizabeth Howard, daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk.
Elizabeth Boleyn, Countess of Wiltshire (née Lady Elizabeth Howard; c. 1480 – 3 April 1538) was an English noblewoman, noted for being the mother of Anne Boleyn and as such the maternal grandmother of Elizabeth I of England.

Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk

Earl of SurreyThomas Howard, Earl of SurreyThomas Howard
Anne was the daughter of Thomas Boleyn, later Earl of Wiltshire and Earl of Ormond, and his wife, Lady Elizabeth Howard, daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk.
The Duke was the grandfather of both Queen Anne Boleyn and Queen Catherine Howard and the great grandfather of Queen Elizabeth I.

Maid of honour

maids of honourhovfrökenmaid-of-honour
Anne was the daughter of Thomas Boleyn, 1st Earl of Wiltshire, and his wife, Lady Elizabeth Howard, and was educated in the Netherlands and France, largely as a maid of honour to Queen Claude of France.
Traditionally, a queen regnant had eight maids of honour, while a queen consort had four; Queen Anne Boleyn, however, had over 60.

James Butler, 9th Earl of Ormond

James Butler, 9th Earl of OrmondeJamesJames Butler
Anne returned to England in early 1522, to marry her Irish cousin James Butler, 9th Earl of Ormond; the marriage plans were broken off, and instead she secured a post at court as maid of honour to Henry VIII's wife, Catherine of Aragon.
In early 1522, it was proposed by King Henry VIII that he marry his cousin Anne Boleyn, who was the great-granddaughter of Thomas Butler, 7th Earl of Ormond.

George Boleyn, 2nd Viscount Rochford

George BoleynGeorge Boleyn, Viscount RochfordGeorge
Their brother George was born around 1504.
1503 /c. April 1504 – 17 May 1536) was an English courtier and nobleman, and the brother of queen consort Anne Boleyn.

Henry VIII of England

Henry VIIIKing Henry VIIIKing Henry VIII of England
undefined 1501 – 19 May 1536) was Queen of England from 1533 to 1536 as the second wife of King Henry VIII.
In 1525, as Henry grew more impatient with Catherine's inability to produce the male heir he desired, he became enamoured of Mary Boleyn's sister, Anne, then a charismatic young woman of 25 in the Queen's entourage.

Royal mistress

mistressconcubinesKing's mistresses
She resisted his attempts to seduce her, refusing to become his mistress, which her sister Mary had been.

Church of England

AnglicanChurchC of E
As a result of this marriage and these excommunications, the first break between the Church of England and Rome took place and the Church of England was brought under the King's control.
A theological separation had been foreshadowed by various movements within the English Church, such as Lollardy, but the English Reformation gained political support when Henry VIII wanted an annulment of his marriage to Catherine of Aragon so he could marry Anne Boleyn.

Blickling Hall

BlicklingBlickling Hall, Gardens and ParkBlickling Park
However, the siblings were born in Norfolk at the Boleyn home at Blickling.
Although the exact birth dates of their children are unknown, historians including Eric Ives are confident that all three surviving children were likely born at Blickling – Mary in about 1500, Anne in about 1501, and George in about 1504.

Earl of Ormond (Ireland)

Earl of OrmondEarl of Ormond (1328)Duke of Ormonde
Anne was the daughter of Thomas Boleyn, later Earl of Wiltshire and Earl of Ormond, and his wife, Lady Elizabeth Howard, daughter of Thomas Howard, 2nd Duke of Norfolk.
This facilitated the next creation by awarding the titles of Ormond and Wiltshire to Thomas Boleyn, who was the father of Anne Boleyn.

Catherine Howard

Katherine HowardQueen Catherine HowardHenry Manox
According to Eric Ives, she was certainly of more noble birth than Jane Seymour, Catherine Howard, and Catherine Parr, Henry VIII's three other English wives.
She was the daughter of Lord Edmund Howard and Joyce Culpeper, cousin to Anne Boleyn (the second wife of Henry VIII), and niece to Thomas Howard, 3rd Duke of Norfolk.

Thomas Cranmer

Archbishop CranmerCranmerCranmer Square
On 23 May 1533, newly appointed Archbishop of Canterbury Thomas Cranmer declared Henry and Catherine's marriage null and void; five days later, he declared Henry and Anne's marriage valid.
The appointment had been secured by the family of Anne Boleyn, who was being courted by Henry.

Boleyn family

BoleynBoleynsHouse of Boleyn
At the time of Anne's birth, the Boleyn family was considered one of the most respected in the English aristocracy.
They reached the peak of their influence during the Tudor period, when Anne Boleyn became the second wife of Henry VIII and their daughter became Elizabeth I.

Incest

incestuousincestuous relationshipincestual
Modern historians view the charges against her, which included adultery, incest and plotting to kill the king, as unconvincing.
For example, the accusation that Anne Boleyn and her brother George Boleyn had committed incest was one of the reasons that both siblings were executed in May 1536.

Thomas More

Sir Thomas MoreSt. Thomas MoreSaint Thomas More
An Italian, writing in 1600, suggested that she had been born in 1499, while Sir Thomas More's son-in-law, William Roper, indicated a much later date of 1512.
In 1533, More refused to attend the coronation of Anne Boleyn as the Queen of England.