Anno Domini

Anno Domini inscription at Klagenfurt Cathedral, Austria
Statue of Charlemagne by Agostino Cornacchini (1725), at St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City. Charlemagne promoted the usage of the Anno Domini epoch throughout the Carolingian Empire.

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

- Anno Domini

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Period of one thousand years, sometimes called a kiloannum (ka), or kiloyear (ky).

All aboard for the millennium! by Opper and Keppler, 1896

Those holding that the arrival of the new millennium should be celebrated in the transition from 2000 to 2001 (i.e., December 31, 2000, to January 1, 2001) argued that the Anno Domini system of counting years began with the year 1 (There was no year zero) and therefore the first millennium was from the year 1 to the end of the year 1000, the second millennium from 1001 to the end of 2000, and the third millennium beginning with 2001 and ending at the end of 3000.

Gregorian calendar

Calendar used in most of the world.

An image showing which century years are leap years in the Gregorian calendar
Lunario Novo, Secondo la Nuova Riforma della Correttione del l'Anno Riformato da N.S. Gregorio XIII, printed in Rome by Vincenzo Accolti in 1582, one of the first printed editions of the new calendar.
Memorial plaque to John Etty in All Saints' Church, North Street, York, recording his date of death as 28 January 170 8⁄9
The knuckle mnemonic for the days of the months of the year
Gregorian calendar seasons difference

A calendar date is fully specified by the year (numbered according to a calendar era, in this case Anno Domini or Common Era), the month (identified by name or number), and the day of the month (numbered sequentially starting from 1).

Year zero

Anno Domini inscription at Klagenfurt Cathedral, Austria

A year zero does not exist in the Anno Domini (AD) calendar year system commonly used to number years in the Gregorian calendar (nor in its predecessor, the Julian calendar); in this system, the year 1 BC is followed directly by year AD 1.


Epoch or reference epoch is an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular calendar era.

Joseph Scaliger's De emendatione temporum (1583) began the modern science of chronology

The Anno Domini or Common Era system, still in use with the Julian calendar and Gregorians today, marks the Incarnation of Jesus as calculated in the 6th century by Dionysius Exiguus.

Regnal year

Year of the reign of a sovereign, from the Latin regnum meaning kingdom, rule.

The Nine Sovereigns at Windsor for the funeral of King Edward VII, photographed on 20 May 1910. Standing, from left to right: King Haakon VII of Norway, Tsar Ferdinand of the Bulgarians, King Manuel II of Portugal and the Algarve, Kaiser Wilhelm II of Germany and Prussia, King George I of the Hellenes and King Albert I of the Belgians. Seated, from left to right: King Alfonso XIII of Spain, King George V of the United Kingdom and King Frederick VIII of Denmark.

Regnal years are "finite era names", contrary to "infinite era names" such as Christian era, Jimmu era, Juche era, and so on.

Dionysius Exiguus

6th-century Eastern Roman monk born in Scythia Minor.

Dionysius is best known as the inventor of Anno Domini (AD) dating, which is used to number the years of both the Gregorian calendar and the (Christianised) Julian calendar.


English monk at the monastery of St. Peter and its companion monastery of St. Paul in the Kingdom of Northumbria of the Angles (contemporarily Monkwearmouth–Jarrow Abbey in Tyne and Wear, England).

Cropped portrait from The Last Chapter by J. Doyle Penrose (c. 1902), showing Bede finishing his translation of the Gospel of John on his deathbed
Opera Bedae Venerabilis (1563)
Stained glass at Gloucester Cathedral depicting Bede dictating to a scribe
Bede's tomb in the Galilee Chapel at the west end of Durham Cathedral
Depiction of the Venerable Bede (on CLVIIIv) from the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493
The Venerable Bede writing the Ecclesiastical History of the English People, from a 12th century codex at Engelberg Abbey in Switzerland.
A page from a copy of Bede's Lives of St. Cuthbert, showing King Athelstan presenting the work to the saint. This manuscript was given to St. Cuthbert's shrine in 934.
De natura rerum, 1529
Bede depicted at St. Bede's school, Chennai

He also helped popularize the practice of dating forward from the birth of Christ (Anno Domini – in the year of our Lord), a practice which eventually became commonplace in medieval Europe.

Date of Easter

Determined in each year through a calculation known as computus .

Calendar of the dates of Easter, for the years 532–632 (marble, in Museum of Ravenna Cathedral, Italy).
A table from Sweden to find the date of Easter 1140–1671 according to the Julian calendar. Each column corresonds to a period of 28 years. Notice the runes used as arbitrary symbols.
Chronological diagram of the date of Easter for 600 years, from the Gregorian calendar reform to the year 2200 (by Camille Flammarion, 1907)
Distribution of the date of Easter for the complete 5,700,000 year cycle
Graphs of the dates of Western (Catholic) and Eastern (Orthodox) Easter Sunday compared with the March equinox and full moons from 1950 to 2050 on the Gregorian calendar
Distribution of the date of Easter in most eastern churches 1900–2099 vs western Easter distribution
Dates of Easter, 1900 to 2199
Distribution of the date of Easter for the complete 5,700,000 year cycle

The Hebrew calendar is a lunisolar one and does not have a simple relationship with the Christian calendars: it resynchronizes with the solar year by intercalating a leap month every two or three years, before the lunar new year on 1 Nisan.


Jesus (c.

Counter-clockwise from top-right: Hebrew, Aramaic, Greek, Latin, and English transcriptions of the name Jesus
A 3rd-century Greek papyrus of the Gospel of Luke
Adoration of the Shepherds by Gerard van Honthorst, 1622
The Circumcision by Giovanni Bellini, ~1500. The work depicts the circumcision of Jesus.
The Finding of the Saviour in the Temple, by William Holman Hunt, 1860
The Baptism of Christ by John the Baptist, by José Ferraz de Almeida Júnior, 1895
Sermon on the Mount, by Carl Bloch, 1877, depicts Jesus' important discourse
The Exhortation to the Apostles, by James Tissot, portrays Jesus talking to his 12 disciples
Jesus and the rich young man by Heinrich Hofmann, 1889
The Return of the Prodigal Son by Pompeo Batoni depicts the Parable of the Prodigal Son. Jesus told many parables during his ministry.
Jesus cleansing a leper, medieval mosaic from the Monreale Cathedral, late 12th to mid-13th centuries
The Transfiguration of Jesus, depicted by Carl Bloch, 19th century
A painting of Jesus' final entry into Jerusalem, by Jean-Léon Gérôme, 1897
The Last Supper, depicted by Juan de Juanes, c. 1562
A depiction of the kiss of Judas and arrest of Jesus, by Caravaggio, c. 1602
Ecce homo! Antonio Ciseri's 1871 depiction of Pontius Pilate presenting Jesus to the public
Pietro Perugino's depiction of the Crucifixion as Stabat Mater, 1482
Appearance of Jesus Christ to Maria Magdalena by Alexander Andreyevich Ivanov, 1835
A 3rd century depiction of Jesus as the Good Shepherd
Judea, Galilee and neighboring areas at the time of Jesus
A 1640 edition of the works of Josephus, a 1st-century Roman-Jewish historian who referred to Jesus.
Baptism in the Jordan River, the river where Jesus was baptized
The Resurrection of Christ from a 16th-century manuscript of La Passion de Nostre Seigneur
The ethnicity of Jesus in art has been influenced by cultural settings.
The Trinity is the belief in Christianity that God is one God in three persons: God the Father, God the Son (Jesus), and God the Holy Spirit.
Jesus is depicted with the Alpha and Omega letters in the catacombs of Rome from the 4th century.
The name Jesus son of Mary written in Islamic calligraphy followed by Peace be upon him
The Druze maqam of Al-masih (Jesus) in As-Suwayda Governorate.
Enthroned Jesus image on a Manichaean temple banner from c. 10th-century Qocho
Jesus healing a paralytic in one of the first known images of Jesus from Dura Europos in the 3rd century
The Shroud of Turin, Italy, is the best-known claimed relic of Jesus and one of the most studied artifacts in human history.

The world's most widely used calendar era—in which the current year is 2022 AD/CE—is based on the approximate birthdate of Jesus.

Calendar era

Period of time elapsed since one epoch of a calendar and, if it exists, before the next one.

Joseph Scaliger's De emendatione temporum (1583) began the modern science of chronology

For example, it is the year 2022 as per the Gregorian calendar, which numbers its years in the Western Christian era (the Coptic Orthodox and Ethiopian Orthodox churches have their own Christian eras).