Anno Mundi

A Jewish gravestone using the Year After Creation (Anno Mundi) chronology, found just outside the Rotunda of Thessaloniki
Inscription in Ballybough Cemetery, Ireland, indicating Anno Mundi 5618 (AD 1857)
The inscription over the Bevis Marks Synagogue, City of London, gives a year in Anno Mundi (5461) and Anno Domini (1701).

Calendar era based on the biblical accounts of the creation of the world and subsequent history.

- Anno Mundi
A Jewish gravestone using the Year After Creation (Anno Mundi) chronology, found just outside the Rotunda of Thessaloniki

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Anno Domini inscription at Klagenfurt Cathedral, Austria

Anno Domini

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

Anno Domini inscription at Klagenfurt Cathedral, Austria
Statue of Charlemagne by Agostino Cornacchini (1725), at St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City. Charlemagne promoted the usage of the Anno Domini epoch throughout the Carolingian Empire.

"However, nowhere in his exposition of his table does Dionysius relate his epoch to any other dating system, whether consulate, Olympiad, year of the world, or regnal year of Augustus; much less does he explain or justify the underlying date."

Jewish calendar, showing Adar II between 1927 and 1948

Hebrew calendar

Lunisolar calendar used today for Jewish religious observance, and as an official calendar of the state of Israel.

Lunisolar calendar used today for Jewish religious observance, and as an official calendar of the state of Israel.

Jewish calendar, showing Adar II between 1927 and 1948
The Trumpeting Place inscription, a stone (2.43×1 m) with Hebrew inscription "To the Trumpeting Place" is believed to be a part of the Second Temple.
A bronze Shabbat candlestick holder made in Mandatory Palestine in the 1940s.
The Jewish calendar's reference point is traditionally held to be about one year before the Creation of the world.
A shofar made from a ram's horn is traditionally blown in observance of Rosh Hashanah, the beginning of the Jewish civic year.

Al-Khwarizmi's study of the Jewish calendar describes the 19-year intercalation cycle, the rules for determining on what day of the week the first day of the month Tishrī shall fall, the interval between the Jewish era (creation of Adam) and the Seleucid era, and the rules for determining the mean longitude of the sun and the moon using the Jewish calendar.

Joseph Scaliger's De emendatione temporum (1583) began the modern science of chronology

Epoch

Epoch or reference epoch is an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular calendar era.

Epoch or reference epoch is an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular calendar era.

Joseph Scaliger's De emendatione temporum (1583) began the modern science of chronology

Anno Mundi (years since the creation of the world) is used in the Byzantine calendar (5509 BC).

The Tusculum portrait of Julius Caesar

Julian calendar

Reform of the Roman calendar.

Reform of the Roman calendar.

The Tusculum portrait of Julius Caesar
This is a visual example of the official date change from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian.
Russian icon of the Theophany (the baptism of Jesus by John the Baptist) (6 January), the highest-ranked feast which occurs on the fixed cycle of the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar.

In the eastern Mediterranean, the efforts of Christian chronographers such as Annianus of Alexandria to date the Biblical creation of the world led to the introduction of Anno Mundi eras based on this event.

Byzantine mosaic of the Creation of Adam (Monreale Cathedral)

Byzantine calendar

The calendar used by the Eastern Orthodox Church from c. 691 to 1728 in the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

The calendar used by the Eastern Orthodox Church from c. 691 to 1728 in the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

Byzantine mosaic of the Creation of Adam (Monreale Cathedral)
Creation of Adam and Eve (Russian icon, 18th c.)
God as architect of the world (frontispiece of Bible moralisée, c. 1220–1230)
Chronicon Paschale, Venetian edition of 1729

The calendar was based on the Julian calendar, except that the year started on 1 September and the year number used an Anno Mundi epoch derived from the Septuagint version of the Bible.

Joseph Scaliger's De emendatione temporum (1583) began the modern science of chronology

Calendar era

Period of time elapsed since one epoch of a calendar and, if it exists, before the next one.

Period of time elapsed since one epoch of a calendar and, if it exists, before the next one.

Joseph Scaliger's De emendatione temporum (1583) began the modern science of chronology

A.M. (or AM) – for the Latin Anno Mundi, meaning "in the year of the world", has its epoch in the year 3761 BC. This was first used to number the years of the modern Hebrew calendar in 1178 by Maimonides. Precursors with epochs one or two years later were used since the 3rd century, all based on the Seder Olam Rabba of the 2nd century. The year beginning in the northern autumn of 2000 was 5761 AM.

Jewish calendar, showing Adar II between 1927 and 1948

Missing years (Jewish calendar)

Jewish calendar, showing Adar II between 1927 and 1948

The missing years in the Hebrew calendar refer to a chronological discrepancy between the rabbinic dating for the destruction of the First Temple in 423 BCE (3338 Anno Mundi) and the academic dating of it in 587 BCE.

The Jewish calendar's reference point is traditionally considered to be about one year before the creation of the world.

Seder Olam Rabbah

2nd-century CE Hebrew language chronology detailing the dates of biblical events from creation to Alexander the Great's conquest of Persia.

2nd-century CE Hebrew language chronology detailing the dates of biblical events from creation to Alexander the Great's conquest of Persia.

The Jewish calendar's reference point is traditionally considered to be about one year before the creation of the world.

The dating system of numbering the years from creation was adopted sometime before 3925 Anno Mundi (165 CE), and based on the calculation of Rabbi Yose ben Halafta during about 160 CE in the book Seder Olam Rabbah.

Modern artistic depiction of Solomon's Temple, at the Israel Museum

Solomon's Temple

The first Temple in Jerusalem, according to the Hebrew Bible.

The first Temple in Jerusalem, according to the Hebrew Bible.

Modern artistic depiction of Solomon's Temple, at the Israel Museum
Modern-day reconstruction of Jerusalem during the reign of Solomon (10th century BCE). The temple stands on the original Mount Moriah, as it looked prior to its expansion by King Herod in the 1st century BCE
King Solomon dedicates the Temple at Jerusalem. Painting by James Tissot or follower, c. 1896–1902
Chaldees destroy the Brazen Sea, Painting by James Tissot, c. 1900
Proposed reconstruction of Solomon's Temple (2013) based on 10th century BCE shrine model discovered in Khirbet Qeiyafa
Plan of Solomon's Temple, published 1905
Plan of Solomon's Temple with measurements
Molten Sea, illustration in the Holman Bible, 1890
Asherah was worshipped until King Josiah
Digital rendering of Solomon's Temple (2010)
Model of the First Temple, included in a Bible manual for teachers (1922)
Depiction of Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem by the 16th-century French scholar François Vatable

Rabbinic sources state that the First Temple stood for 410 years and, based on the 2nd-century work Seder Olam Rabbah, place construction in 832 BCE and destruction in 422 BCE (3338 AM), 165 years later than secular estimates.

Cropped portrait from The Last Chapter by J. Doyle Penrose (c. 1902), showing Bede finishing his translation of the Gospel of John on his deathbed

Bede

English monk at the monastery of St. Peter and its companion monastery of St. Paul in the Kingdom of Northumbria of the Angles (contemporarily Monkwearmouth–Jarrow Abbey in Tyne and Wear, England).

English monk at the monastery of St. Peter and its companion monastery of St. Paul in the Kingdom of Northumbria of the Angles (contemporarily Monkwearmouth–Jarrow Abbey in Tyne and Wear, England).

Cropped portrait from The Last Chapter by J. Doyle Penrose (c. 1902), showing Bede finishing his translation of the Gospel of John on his deathbed
Opera Bedae Venerabilis (1563)
Stained glass at Gloucester Cathedral depicting Bede dictating to a scribe
Bede's tomb in the Galilee Chapel at the west end of Durham Cathedral
Depiction of the Venerable Bede (on CLVIIIv) from the Nuremberg Chronicle, 1493
The Venerable Bede writing the Ecclesiastical History of the English People, from a 12th century codex at Engelberg Abbey in Switzerland.
A page from a copy of Bede's Lives of St. Cuthbert, showing King Athelstan presenting the work to the saint. This manuscript was given to St. Cuthbert's shrine in 934.
De natura rerum, 1529
Bede depicted at St. Bede's school, Chennai

For earlier events he drew on Eusebius's Chronikoi Kanones. The dating of events in the Chronicle is inconsistent with his other works, using the era of creation, the Anno Mundi.