Anno Mundi

A Jewish gravestone using the Year After Creation (Anno Mundi) chronology, found just outside the Rotunda of Thessaloniki
Inscription in Ballybough Cemetery, Ireland, indicating Anno Mundi 5618 (AD 1857)
The inscription over the Bevis Marks Synagogue, City of London, gives a year in Anno Mundi (5461) and Anno Domini (1701).

Calendar era based on the biblical accounts of the creation of the world and subsequent history.

- Anno Mundi
A Jewish gravestone using the Year After Creation (Anno Mundi) chronology, found just outside the Rotunda of Thessaloniki

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Joseph Scaliger's De emendatione temporum (1583) began the modern science of chronology

Epoch

Epoch or reference epoch is an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular calendar era.

Epoch or reference epoch is an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular calendar era.

Joseph Scaliger's De emendatione temporum (1583) began the modern science of chronology

Anno Mundi (years since the creation of the world) is used in the Byzantine calendar (5509 BC).

Maimonides (artist's conceptual drawing)

Mishneh Torah

Code of Rabbinic Jewish religious law (Halakha) authored by Maimonides (Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon/Rambam).

Code of Rabbinic Jewish religious law (Halakha) authored by Maimonides (Rabbi Moshe ben Maimon/Rambam).

Maimonides (artist's conceptual drawing)
A page of a medieval Jerusalem Talmud manuscript, from the Cairo Geniza
Torah scroll
The single scroll of the arm-tefillin
A sukkah booth
A Ketubah in Hebrew, a Jewish marriage-contract outlining the duties of the husband.
Herod's Temple, as imagined in the Holyland Model of Jerusalem. It is currently situated adjacent to the Shrine of the Book exhibit at the Israel Museum, Jerusalem.
The Sanhedrin, from an 1883 encyclopedia
Title page from Sefer Shaarei Teshuvah (1960 pocket edition) by Yonah Gerondi (d.1263), first published in 1505.
Title page of Karo's Shulchan Aruch
Rabbi Menachem Mendel Schneerson, known as "the Lubavitcher Rebbe", studied the Mishneh Torah daily and encouraged other Jews to follow along with him in an annual study cycle.

The Mishneh Torah was compiled between 1170 and 1180 CE (4930 and 4940 AM), while Maimonides was living in Egypt, and is regarded as Maimonides' magnum opus.

Imaginary 18th-century depiction of Maimonides

Maimonides

Medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.

Medieval Sephardic Jewish philosopher who became one of the most prolific and influential Torah scholars of the Middle Ages.

Imaginary 18th-century depiction of Maimonides
The dominion of the Almohad Caliphate at its greatest extent, c. 1200
Maimonides' house in Fez, Morocco
Monument in Córdoba
Bas relief of Maimonides in the United States House of Representatives.
The Tomb of Maimonides in Tiberias
Depiction of Maimonides teaching students about the 'measure of man' in an illuminated manuscript.
The title page of The Guide for the Perplexed
Plaque of Maimonides at Rambam Medical Center, Haifa
Manuscript page by Maimonides. Judeo-Arabic language in Hebrew letters.
The original manuscript of the Commentary on the Mishnah, handwritten by Musa bin Maymun in Judeo-Arabic in a Rashi script.

Abraham Zacuto, Sefer Yuchasin, Cracow 1580 (Hebrew), p. 261 in PDF, which reads: "… I saw in a booklet that the Ark of God, even Rabbi Moses b. Maimon, of blessed memory, had been taken up (i.e. euphemism for "had died"), in the year [4],965 anno mundi (= 1204/5 CE) in Egypt, and the Jews wept for him – as did [all] the Egyptians – three days, and they coined a name for that time of year, [saying], 'there was wailing,' and on the seventh day [of his passing], the news reached Alexandria, and on the eighth day, [the news reached] Jerusalem, and in Jerusalem they made a great public mourning [on his behalf] and called for a fast and public gathering, where it was that the prayer precentor read out the admonitions, 'If you shall walk in my statutes [etc.]' (Leviticus 26:3-ff.), as well as read the concluding verse [from the Prophets], 'And it came to pass that Samuel spoke to all of Israel [etc.],' and he then concluded by saying that the Ark of God had been taken away.

Signature page from the Annals of the Four Masters

Annals of the Four Masters

The Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland (Annála Ríoghachta Éireann) or the Annals of the Four Masters (Annála na gCeithre Máistrí) are chronicles of medieval Irish history.

The Annals of the Kingdom of Ireland (Annála Ríoghachta Éireann) or the Annals of the Four Masters (Annála na gCeithre Máistrí) are chronicles of medieval Irish history.

Signature page from the Annals of the Four Masters
Entry for AD 432
Illustration of "the four masters" by B. H. Holbrooke, 1846

The entries span from the Deluge, dated as 2,242 years after creation to AD 1616.

Byzantine mosaic of the Creation of Adam (Monreale Cathedral)

Byzantine calendar

The calendar used by the Eastern Orthodox Church from c. 691 to 1728 in the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

The calendar used by the Eastern Orthodox Church from c. 691 to 1728 in the Ecumenical Patriarchate.

Byzantine mosaic of the Creation of Adam (Monreale Cathedral)
Creation of Adam and Eve (Russian icon, 18th c.)
God as architect of the world (frontispiece of Bible moralisée, c. 1220–1230)
Chronicon Paschale, Venetian edition of 1729

The calendar was based on the Julian calendar, except that the year started on 1 September and the year number used an Anno Mundi epoch derived from the Septuagint version of the Bible.

A depiction of Rabbi Ashi teaching at the Sura Academy

Talmudic academies in Babylonia

A depiction of Rabbi Ashi teaching at the Sura Academy

The Talmudic academies in Babylonia, also known as the Geonic academies, were the center for Jewish scholarship and the development of Halakha from roughly 589 to 1038 CE (Hebrew dates: 4349 AM to 4798 AM) in what is called "Babylonia" in Jewish sources, at the time otherwise known as Asōristān (under the Sasanian Empire) or Iraq (under the Muslim caliphate until the 11th century).

Jewish calendar, showing Adar II between 1927 and 1948

Hebrew calendar

Lunisolar calendar used today for Jewish religious observance, and as an official calendar of the state of Israel.

Lunisolar calendar used today for Jewish religious observance, and as an official calendar of the state of Israel.

Jewish calendar, showing Adar II between 1927 and 1948
The Trumpeting Place inscription, a stone (2.43×1 m) with Hebrew inscription "To the Trumpeting Place" is believed to be a part of the Second Temple.
A bronze Shabbat candlestick holder made in Mandatory Palestine in the 1940s.
The Jewish calendar's reference point is traditionally held to be about one year before the Creation of the world.
A shofar made from a ram's horn is traditionally blown in observance of Rosh Hashanah, the beginning of the Jewish civic year.

Al-Khwarizmi's study of the Jewish calendar describes the 19-year intercalation cycle, the rules for determining on what day of the week the first day of the month Tishrī shall fall, the interval between the Jewish era (creation of Adam) and the Seleucid era, and the rules for determining the mean longitude of the sun and the moon using the Jewish calendar.

Modern artistic depiction of Solomon's Temple, at the Israel Museum

Solomon's Temple

The first Temple in Jerusalem, according to the Hebrew Bible.

The first Temple in Jerusalem, according to the Hebrew Bible.

Modern artistic depiction of Solomon's Temple, at the Israel Museum
Modern-day reconstruction of Jerusalem during the reign of Solomon (10th century BCE). The temple stands on the original Mount Moriah, as it looked prior to its expansion by King Herod in the 1st century BCE
King Solomon dedicates the Temple at Jerusalem. Painting by James Tissot or follower, c. 1896–1902
Chaldees destroy the Brazen Sea, Painting by James Tissot, c. 1900
Proposed reconstruction of Solomon's Temple (2013) based on 10th century BCE shrine model discovered in Khirbet Qeiyafa
Plan of Solomon's Temple, published 1905
Plan of Solomon's Temple with measurements
Molten Sea, illustration in the Holman Bible, 1890
Asherah was worshipped until King Josiah
Digital rendering of Solomon's Temple (2010)
Model of the First Temple, included in a Bible manual for teachers (1922)
Depiction of Solomon's Temple in Jerusalem by the 16th-century French scholar François Vatable

Rabbinic sources state that the First Temple stood for 410 years and, based on the 2nd-century work Seder Olam Rabbah, place construction in 832 BCE and destruction in 422 BCE (3338 AM), 165 years later than secular estimates.

Anno Domini inscription at Klagenfurt Cathedral, Austria

Anno Domini

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

Anno Domini inscription at Klagenfurt Cathedral, Austria
Statue of Charlemagne by Agostino Cornacchini (1725), at St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City. Charlemagne promoted the usage of the Anno Domini epoch throughout the Carolingian Empire.

"However, nowhere in his exposition of his table does Dionysius relate his epoch to any other dating system, whether consulate, Olympiad, year of the world, or regnal year of Augustus; much less does he explain or justify the underlying date."

Joseph Scaliger's De emendatione temporum (1583) began the modern science of chronology

Calendar era

Period of time elapsed since one epoch of a calendar and, if it exists, before the next one.

Period of time elapsed since one epoch of a calendar and, if it exists, before the next one.

Joseph Scaliger's De emendatione temporum (1583) began the modern science of chronology

A.M. (or AM) – for the Latin Anno Mundi, meaning "in the year of the world", has its epoch in the year 3761 BC. This was first used to number the years of the modern Hebrew calendar in 1178 by Maimonides. Precursors with epochs one or two years later were used since the 3rd century, all based on the Seder Olam Rabba of the 2nd century. The year beginning in the northern autumn of 2000 was 5761 AM.