A report on EpochCalendar era and Anno Mundi

A Jewish gravestone using the Year After Creation (Anno Mundi) chronology, found just outside the Rotunda of Thessaloniki
Inscription in Ballybough Cemetery, Ireland, indicating Anno Mundi 5618 (AD 1857)
The inscription over the Bevis Marks Synagogue, City of London, gives a year in Anno Mundi (5461) and Anno Domini (1701).

In chronology and periodization, an epoch or reference epoch is an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular calendar era.

- Epoch

A calendar era is the period of time elapsed since one epoch of a calendar and, if it exists, before the next one.

- Calendar era

Anno Mundi (from Latin "in the year of the world"; לבריאת העולם), abbreviated as AM or A.M., or Year After Creation, is a calendar era based on the biblical accounts of the creation of the world and subsequent history.

- Anno Mundi

Anno Mundi (years since the creation of the world) is used in the Byzantine calendar (5509 BC).

- Epoch

Since the Middle Ages, the Hebrew calendar has been based on rabbinic calculations of the year of creation from the Hebrew Masoretic Text of the Bible. This calendar is used within Jewish communities for religious purposes and is one of two official calendars in Israel. On the Hebrew calendar, the day begins at sunset. The calendar's epoch, corresponding to the calculated date of the world's creation, is equivalent to sunset on the Julian proleptic calendar date 6 October 3761 BC. The new year begins at Rosh Hashanah, in Tishrei. Anno mundi 5782, or AM 5782 (meaning the 5,782nd year since the creation of the world) began at sunset on 6 September 2021 according to the Gregorian calendar.

- Anno Mundi

A.M. (or AM) – for the Latin Anno Mundi, meaning "in the year of the world", has its epoch in the year 3761 BC. This was first used to number the years of the modern Hebrew calendar in 1178 by Maimonides. Precursors with epochs one or two years later were used since the 3rd century, all based on the Seder Olam Rabba of the 2nd century. The year beginning in the northern autumn of 2000 was 5761 AM.

- Calendar era
A Jewish gravestone using the Year After Creation (Anno Mundi) chronology, found just outside the Rotunda of Thessaloniki

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Anno Domini inscription at Klagenfurt Cathedral, Austria

Anno Domini

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The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

Anno Domini inscription at Klagenfurt Cathedral, Austria
Statue of Charlemagne by Agostino Cornacchini (1725), at St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City. Charlemagne promoted the usage of the Anno Domini epoch throughout the Carolingian Empire.

This calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus, AD counting years from the start of this epoch and BC denoting years before the start of the era.

"However, nowhere in his exposition of his table does Dionysius relate his epoch to any other dating system, whether consulate, Olympiad, year of the world, or regnal year of Augustus; much less does he explain or justify the underlying date."

The Tusculum portrait of Julius Caesar

Julian calendar

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Reform of the Roman calendar.

Reform of the Roman calendar.

The Tusculum portrait of Julius Caesar
This is a visual example of the official date change from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian.
Russian icon of the Theophany (the baptism of Jesus by John the Baptist) (6 January), the highest-ranked feast which occurs on the fixed cycle of the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar.

In 537, Justinian required that henceforth the date must include the name of the emperor and his regnal year, in addition to the indiction and the consul, while also allowing the use of local eras.

The Fasti Capitolini, an inscription containing an official list of the consuls which was published by Augustus, used an epoch of 752 BC. The epoch used by Varro, 753 BC, has been adopted by modern historians.

In the eastern Mediterranean, the efforts of Christian chronographers such as Annianus of Alexandria to date the Biblical creation of the world led to the introduction of Anno Mundi eras based on this event.