A Jewish gravestone using the Year After Creation (Anno Mundi) chronology, found just outside the Rotunda of Thessaloniki
The Tusculum portrait of Julius Caesar
Inscription in Ballybough Cemetery, Ireland, indicating Anno Mundi 5618 (AD 1857)
This is a visual example of the official date change from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian.
The inscription over the Bevis Marks Synagogue, City of London, gives a year in Anno Mundi (5461) and Anno Domini (1701).
Russian icon of the Theophany (the baptism of Jesus by John the Baptist) (6 January), the highest-ranked feast which occurs on the fixed cycle of the Eastern Orthodox liturgical calendar.

Anno Mundi (from Latin "in the year of the world"; לבריאת העולם), abbreviated as AM or A.M., or Year After Creation, is a calendar era based on the biblical accounts of the creation of the world and subsequent history.

- Anno Mundi

The Byzantine calendar was used in the Eastern Roman Empire and many Christian Orthodox countries and Eastern Orthodox Churches and was based on the Septuagint text of the Bible. That calendar is similar to the Julian calendar except that its reference date is equivalent to 1 September 5509 BC on the Julian proleptic calendar.

- Anno Mundi

A.D. (or AD) – for the Latin Anno Domini, meaning "in the year of (our) Lord". This is the dominant or Western Christian Era; AD is used in the Gregorian calendar. Anno Salutis, meaning "in the year of salvation" is identical. Originally intended to number years from the Incarnation of Jesus, according to modern thinking the calculation was a few years off. Years preceding AD 1 are numbered using the BC era, avoiding zero or negative numbers. AD was also used in the medieval Julian calendar, but the first day of the year was either 1 March, Easter, 25 March, 1 September, or 25 December, not 1 January. To distinguish between the Julian and Gregorian calendars, O.S. and N.S. were often added to the date, especially during the 17th and 18th centuries, when both calendars were in common use. Old Style (O.S.) was used for the Julian calendar and for years not beginning on 1 January. New Style (N.S.) was used for the Gregorian calendar and for Julian calendar years beginning on 1 January. Many countries switched to using 1 January as the start of the numbered year at the same time as they switched from the Julian calendar to the Gregorian calendar, but others switched earlier or later.

- Calendar era

A.M. (or AM) – for the Latin Anno Mundi, meaning "in the year of the world", has its epoch in the year 3761 BC. This was first used to number the years of the modern Hebrew calendar in 1178 by Maimonides. Precursors with epochs one or two years later were used since the 3rd century, all based on the Seder Olam Rabba of the 2nd century. The year beginning in the northern autumn of 2000 was 5761 AM.

- Calendar era

In 537, Justinian required that henceforth the date must include the name of the emperor and his regnal year, in addition to the indiction and the consul, while also allowing the use of local eras.

- Julian calendar

In the eastern Mediterranean, the efforts of Christian chronographers such as Annianus of Alexandria to date the Biblical creation of the world led to the introduction of Anno Mundi eras based on this event.

- Julian calendar
A Jewish gravestone using the Year After Creation (Anno Mundi) chronology, found just outside the Rotunda of Thessaloniki

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Epoch

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In chronology and periodization, an epoch or reference epoch is an instant in time chosen as the origin of a particular calendar era.

Anno Mundi (years since the creation of the world) is used in the Byzantine calendar (5509 BC).

The Anno Domini or Common Era system, still in use with the Julian calendar and Gregorians today, marks the Incarnation of Jesus as calculated in the 6th century by Dionysius Exiguus.

Anno Domini inscription at Klagenfurt Cathedral, Austria

Anno Domini

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Anno Domini inscription at Klagenfurt Cathedral, Austria
Statue of Charlemagne by Agostino Cornacchini (1725), at St. Peter's Basilica, Vatican City. Charlemagne promoted the usage of the Anno Domini epoch throughout the Carolingian Empire.

The terms anno Domini (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendars.

This calendar era is based on the traditionally reckoned year of the conception or birth of Jesus, AD counting years from the start of this epoch and BC denoting years before the start of the era.

"However, nowhere in his exposition of his table does Dionysius relate his epoch to any other dating system, whether consulate, Olympiad, year of the world, or regnal year of Augustus; much less does he explain or justify the underlying date."