Anonymous (group)wikipedia
Anonymous is a decentralized international hacktivist group that is widely known for its various DDoS cyber attacks against several governments, government institutions and government agencies, corporations, and the Church of Scientology.
AnonymousAnonymous PhilippinesAnonymous hacktivist groupAnonymous hacker groupThe UnidentifiedAnonymous #Occupy PhilippinesAnonyOps/b/rothasAnonymus Hacker Groupanonymous hacking group

4chan

4chan/b/4chan.org
Anonymous originated in 2003 on the imageboard 4chan representing the concept of many online and offline community users simultaneously existing as an anarchic, digitized global brain.
The site has been linked to Internet subcultures and activism groups, most notably Anonymous, the alt-right and Project Chanology.

Project Chanology

Project Chanologyleaked video interview of him promoting ScientologyOver 9000 Anonymous March
Beginning with Project Chanology in 2008—a series of protests, pranks, and hacks targeting the Church of Scientology—the Anonymous collective became increasingly associated with collaborative hacktivism on a number of issues internationally.
Project Chanology (also called Operation Chanology) was a protest movement against the practices of the Church of Scientology by members of Anonymous, a leaderless Internet-based group.

Operation AntiSec

AntiSecAnti-Secnew Anti-Sec movement
Related groups LulzSec and Operation AntiSec carried out cyberattacks on U.S. government agencies, media, video game companies, military contractors, military personnel, and police officers, resulting in the attention of law enforcement to the groups' activities.
Operation Anti-Security, also referred to as Operation AntiSec or #AntiSec, is a series of hacking attacks performed by members of hacking group LulzSec and BlackSec, the group Anonymous, and others inspired by the announcement of the operation.

LulzSec

Lulz SecurityLulzSec PilipinasLulzSec
Related groups LulzSec and Operation AntiSec carried out cyberattacks on U.S. government agencies, media, video game companies, military contractors, military personnel, and police officers, resulting in the attention of law enforcement to the groups' activities.
The group helped launch Operation AntiSec, a joint effort involving LulzSec, Anonymous, and other hackers.

Occupy movement

OccupyOccupy MovementOccupy Wall Street movement
Anons have publicly supported WikiLeaks and the Occupy movement.
The protest received additional attention when the internet hacker group Anonymous encouraged its followers to take part in the protests, calling protesters to "flood lower Manhattan, set up tents, kitchens, peaceful barricades and Occupy Wall Street".

Quinn Norton

Quinn Norton of Wired writes that: "Anons lie when they have no reason to lie. They weave vast fabrications as a form of performance. Then they tell the truth at unexpected and unfortunate times, sometimes destroying themselves in the process. They are unpredictable."
Her work covers hacker culture, Anonymous, Occupy movement, intellectual property and copyright issues, and the Internet.

Topiary (hacktivist)

TopiaryJake "Topiary" Davis
Future LulzSec member Topiary became involved with the site at this time, inviting large audiences to listen to his prank phone calls via Skype.
He has worked with Anonymous, LulzSec, and similar hacktivist groups.

PayPal

PayPalPayPal HoldingsPayPal Inc.
Later targets of Anonymous hacktivism included government agencies of the U.S., Israel, Tunisia, Uganda, and others; the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant; child pornography sites; copyright protection agencies; the Westboro Baptist Church; and corporations such as PayPal, MasterCard, Visa, and Sony.
In July 2011, fourteen alleged members of the Anonymous hacktivist group were charged with attempting to disrupt PayPal's operations.

Guy Fawkes mask

maskappearanceAnonymous masks
Anonymous members (known as Anons ) can be distinguished in public by the wearing of Guy Fawkes masks in the style portrayed in the graphic novel and film V for Vendetta.
After appearing in Internet forums, the mask became a well-known symbol for the online hacktivist group Anonymous, used in Project Chanology, the Occupy movement, and other anti-government and anti-establishment protests around the world.

Parmy Olson

Parmy Olson and others have criticized media coverage that presents the group as well-organized or homogeneous; Olson writes, "There was no single leader pulling the levers, but a few organizational minds that sometimes pooled together to start planning a stunt."
Parmy Olson is a journalist for Forbes magazine known for her work on the hacktivist movement Anonymous.

Hacktivism

hacktivisthacktivismhacktivists
Anonymous is a decentralized international hacktivist group that is widely known for its various DDoS cyber attacks against several governments, government institutions and government agencies, corporations, and the Church of Scientology.
Following denial-of-service attacks by Anonymous on multiple sites, in reprisal for the apparent suppression of WikiLeaks, John Perry Barlow, a founding member of the EFF, said "I support freedom of expression, no matter whose, so I oppose DDoS attacks regardless of their target... they're the poison gas of cyberspace...".

Gabriella Coleman

Coleman, E. Gabriella
Gabriella Coleman writes of the group: "In some ways, it may be impossible to gauge the intent and motive of thousands of participants, many of who don't even bother to leave a trace of their thoughts, motivations, and reactions. Among those that do, opinions vary considerably."
Enid Gabriella Coleman (usually known as Gabriella Coleman or Biella; born 1973) is an anthropologist, academic and author whose work focuses on hacker culture and online activism, particularly Anonymous.

LOL

lollulzInternet slang term
In its early form, the concept was adopted by a decentralized online community acting anonymously in a coordinated manner, usually toward a loosely self-agreed goal and primarily focused on entertainment (or lulz).
Gabriella Coleman references "lulz" extensively in her anthropological studies of Anonymous.

Denial-of-service attack

denial-of-service attackdenial of servicedistributed denial of service
Anonymous is a decentralized international hacktivist group that is widely known for its various DDoS cyber attacks against several governments, government institutions and government agencies, corporations, and the Church of Scientology.
In other cases a machine may become part of a DDoS attack with the owner's consent, for example, in Operation Payback, organized by the group Anonymous.

Westboro Baptist Church

Westboro Baptist Churchgodhatesfags.comGod Hates Fags
Later targets of Anonymous hacktivism included government agencies of the U.S., Israel, Tunisia, Uganda, and others; the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant; child pornography sites; copyright protection agencies; the Westboro Baptist Church; and corporations such as PayPal, MasterCard, Visa, and Sony.
Additionally, a posting that same day on a Twitter account affiliated with the hacktivist group Anonymous hinted that Church leaders would be targeted if they made good on their threat to picket the funerals.

Operation Tunisia

Beginning in January 2011, Anons took a number of actions known initially as Operation Tunisia in support of Arab Spring movements.
Operation Tunisia refers to the actions by internet group Anonymous during the Tunisian revolution.

PayPal 14

United States v. Collins et al
On Thursday, December 5, 2013, 13 of the PayPal 14 pleaded guilty to taking part in the attacks.
The PayPal 14 are a group of defendants allegedly connected with the hacktivist group Anonymous, thirteen of whom pleaded guilty in a San Jose court in California, United States in December 2013, to charges of conspiring to disrupt access to the PayPal payment service.

Visa Inc.

VisapayWaveVisa card
Later targets of Anonymous hacktivism included government agencies of the U.S., Israel, Tunisia, Uganda, and others; the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant; child pornography sites; copyright protection agencies; the Westboro Baptist Church; and corporations such as PayPal, MasterCard, Visa, and Sony.
On December 8, the group Anonymous performed a DDoS attack on visa.com, bringing the site down.

WikiLeaks

Wikileakswikileaks.orgleaked
Anons have publicly supported WikiLeaks and the Occupy movement.
In September 2008, during the 2008 United States presidential election campaigns, the contents of a Yahoo account belonging to Sarah Palin (the running mate of Republican presidential nominee John McCain) were posted on WikiLeaks after being hacked into by members of a group known as Anonymous.

OpIsrael

#OpIsraelmassive cyberassault
Anons pledged another "massive cyberassault" against Israel in April 2013 in retaliation for its actions in Gaza, promising to "wipe Israel off the map of the Internet".
The inaugural campaign was launched in 2013 by Anonymous hackers on the eve of Holocaust Remembrance Day.

Mastercard

MasterCardMasterCard WorldwideMasterCard International
Later targets of Anonymous hacktivism included government agencies of the U.S., Israel, Tunisia, Uganda, and others; the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant; child pornography sites; copyright protection agencies; the Westboro Baptist Church; and corporations such as PayPal, MasterCard, Visa, and Sony.
In a response, a group of online activists calling themselves "Anonymous" organised a denial-of-service attack; as a result, the Mastercard website experienced downtime on December 8–9, 2010.

Megaupload

a number of design featuresMegaupload raidMegaupload Limited
On January 19, 2012, the U.S. Department of Justice shut down the file-sharing site Megaupload on allegations of copyright infringement.
The shutdown of Megaupload led to denial-of-service (DoS) attacks on a range of websites belonging to the U.S. government and copyright organizations by the Hacktivist group Anonymous.

Occupy Wall Street

OccupyOccupy Wall StreetOccupy Wall Street movement
When the Occupy Wall Street protests began in New York City in September 2011, Anons were early participants and helped spread the movement to other cities such as Boston.
Thousands of people, organized by a group of labor unions marched on Wall Street 12; the online collective Anonymous attempted an occupation on June 14; activists planned an indefinite occupation of Freedom Plaza in Washington, D.C., which eventually became known as Occupy Washington, D.C.

Freedom Hosting

Freedom Hosting
In particular, the group hacked a child pornography site called "Lolita City" hosted by Freedom Hosting, releasing 1,589 usernames from the site.
In 2011, Anonymous launched Operation Darknet, an anti-child pornography effort against activities on the dark web.

Low Orbit Ion Cannon

LOIC
Within a few days, these were supplanted by the Low Orbit Ion Cannon (LOIC), a network stress-testing application allowing users to flood a server with TCP or UDP packets.
LOIC was used by Anonymous (A group that spawned from the /b/ board of 4chan) during Project Chanology to attack websites from the Church of Scientology, once more to (successfully) attack the Recording Industry Association of America's website in October 2010, and it was again used by Anonymous during their Operation Payback in December 2010 to attack the websites of companies and organizations that opposed WikiLeaks.