Anorexia nervosa

anorexiaanorexicanorexicsSitophobiaCibophobiaObesophobiaWeight phobiaa loss of appetiteannorexiaAnorexia Nervosa (AN)
Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder, characterized by low weight, food restriction, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin.wikipedia
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Eating disorder

eating disorderseatingdisordered eating
Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder, characterized by low weight, food restriction, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin.
They include binge eating disorder, where people eat a large amount in a short period of time; anorexia nervosa, where people eat very little due to a fear of gaining weight and thus have a low body weight; bulimia nervosa, where people eat a lot and then try to rid themselves of the food; pica, where people eat non-food items; rumination syndrome, where people regurgitate food; avoidant/restrictive food intake disorder (ARFID), where people have a lack of interest in food; and a group of other specified feeding or eating disorders.

Osteoporosis

bone lossosteoporoticpostmenopausal osteoporosis
Complications may include osteoporosis, infertility, and heart damage, among others.
Osteoporosis may also occur due to a number of diseases or treatments, including alcoholism, anorexia, hyperthyroidism, kidney disease, and surgical removal of the ovaries.

Underweight

thinnessskinnylow weight
Anorexia nervosa, often referred to simply as anorexia, is an eating disorder, characterized by low weight, food restriction, fear of gaining weight, and a strong desire to be thin.
Being underweight is associated with certain medical conditions, including anorexia, type 1 diabetes, hyperthyroidism, cancer, or tuberculosis.

William Gull

Sir William GullWilliam Withey GullSir William Gull, 1st Baronet
The term "anorexia nervosa" was first used in 1873 by William Gull to describe this condition.
Gull made a number of significant contributions to medical science, including advancing the understanding of myxoedema, Bright's disease, paraplegia and anorexia nervosa (for which he first established the name).

Malnutrition

malnourishednutritional deficienciesmalnourishment
Anorexia nervosa, and the associated malnutrition that results from self-imposed starvation, can cause complications in every major organ system in the body.
Other causes of malnutrition include anorexia nervosa and bariatric surgery.

Hypothermia

exposurehypothermiclow body temperature
Commonly this includes alcohol intoxication but may also include low blood sugar, anorexia, and advanced age.

Starvation

starvedstarvingstarve
Anorexia nervosa is an eating disorder characterized by attempts to lose weight, to the point of starvation.

Interoception

interoceptivesense
Interoception has an important role in homeostasis and regulation of emotions and motivation.
Misrepresentations of internal states, or a disconnect between the body's signals and the brain's interpretation and prediction of those signals, have been suggested to underlie some mental disorders such as anxiety, depression, panic disorder, anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), autism spectrum disorders, somatic symptom disorder, and illness anxiety disorder.

Cognitive behavioral therapy

cognitive behavioural therapycognitive-behavioral therapyCBT
A number of types of therapy may be useful, such as cognitive behavioral therapy or an approach where parents assume responsibility for feeding their child known as Maudsley family therapy.
According to the study, CBT was effective at treating schizophrenia, depression, bipolar disorder, panic disorder, post-traumatic stress, anxiety disorders, bulimia, anorexia, personality disorders and alcohol dependency.

Body dysmorphic disorder

body dysmorphiadysmorphophobiaAddicted to surgery
Other comorbid conditions include depression, alcoholism, borderline and other personality disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD).
The DSM-5 categorizes BDD in the obsessive–compulsive spectrum, and distinguishes it from anorexia nervosa.

Self-harm

self-mutilationself-injuryself harm
However, the number of self-harm methods are only limited by an individual's inventiveness and their determination to harm themselves; this includes burning, self-poisoning, alcohol abuse, self-embedding of objects, hair pulling, bruising/hitting one's self, scratching to hurt one's self, knowingly abusing over the counter or prescription drugs, and forms of self-harm related to anorexia and bulimia.

Orthostatic hypotension

postural hypotensionlow blood pressure with standingfeeling lightheaded with standing
It is also associated with Ehlers–Danlos syndrome and anorexia nervosa.

Body mass index

BMIbody mass index (BMI)body-mass index
The severity of disease is based on body mass index (BMI) in adults with mild disease having a BMI of greater than 17, moderate a BMI of 16 to 17, severe a BMI of 15 to 16, and extreme a BMI less than 15.
In the United States, BMI is also used as a measure of underweight, owing to advocacy on behalf of those with eating disorders, such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.

Obsessive–compulsive personality disorder

obsessive-compulsive personality disorderobsessive-compulsiveobsessive compulsive personality disorder
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) are highly comorbid with AN, particularly the restrictive subtype.
Stiff and rigid personalities have been consistently linked with eating disorders, especially with anorexia nervosa.

Borderline personality disorder

borderlineborderline personalityemotional instability
Other comorbid conditions include depression, alcoholism, borderline and other personality disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD).

Major depressive disorder

depressionclinical depressionmajor depression
Other comorbid conditions include depression, alcoholism, borderline and other personality disorders, anxiety disorders, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, and body dysmorphic disorder (BDD).

Bulimia nervosa

bulimiabulimicbulimics
The distinction between the diagnoses of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa and eating disorder not otherwise specified (EDNOS) is often difficult to make as there is considerable overlap between people diagnosed with these conditions.
Further, the diagnosis of anorexia nervosa takes precedence over that of bulimia.

Alexithymia

Alexithymicalexithymicsblindness to feelings
People with anorexia also report inability to distinguish emotions from bodily sensations in general, called alexithymia.
Single study prevalence findings for other disorders include 63% in anorexia nervosa, 56% in bulimia, 45% to 50% in major depressive disorder, 34% in panic disorder, 28% of social phobics, and 50% in substance abusers.

Lanugo

lanugo haira common symptombaby hair
When found along with other physical symptoms, for example, lanugo can help a physician make a diagnosis of anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa.

Vomiting

emeticvomitemesis
Some exercise excessively, force themselves to vomit, or use laxatives to produce weight loss.

Obsessive–compulsive disorder

obsessive-compulsive disorderobsessive compulsive disorderOCD
Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder (OCPD) are highly comorbid with AN, particularly the restrictive subtype.
People with OCD may be diagnosed with other conditions, as well as or instead of OCD, such as the aforementioned obsessive–compulsive personality disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, generalized anxiety disorder, anorexia nervosa, social anxiety disorder, bulimia nervosa, Tourette syndrome, autism spectrum disorder, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, dermatillomania (compulsive skin picking), body dysmorphic disorder and trichotillomania (hair pulling).

Electrolyte

electrolyteselectrolyticionic solution
Electrolyte monitoring is important in the treatment of anorexia and bulimia.

Anti-obesity medication

diet pilldiet pillsanti-obesity drug
Individuals with anorexia nervosa or bulimia nervosa, and some athletes, try to control body weight with diet pills, laxatives, or diuretic medications, although the latter two generally have no impact on body fat and only cause short-lived weight-loss through dehydration.

Laxative

purgativelaxativesEx-Lax
Some exercise excessively, force themselves to vomit, or use laxatives to produce weight loss.
Although patients with eating disorders such as anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa frequently abuse laxatives in an attempt to lose weight, laxatives act to speed up the transit of feces through the large intestine, which occurs subsequent to the absorption of nutrients in the small intestine.