Antarctica

AntarcticAntarctic continentReference Elevation Model of AntarcticaREMAAntártida81st parallel south82nd parallel south83rd parallel south84th parallel south85th parallel south
Antarctica ( or, ) is Earth's southernmost continent.wikipedia
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Southern Ocean

Antarctic OceanSouthernSouth Seas
It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean.
The Southern Ocean, also known as the Antarctic Ocean or the Austral Ocean, comprises the southernmost waters of the World Ocean, generally taken to be south of 60° S latitude and encircling Antarctica.

Antarctic Peninsula

Palmer PeninsulaMarielandia Antarctic tundraAntarctic
About 98% of Antarctica is covered by ice that averages 1.9 km in thickness, which extends to all but the northernmost reaches of the Antarctic Peninsula.
The Antarctic Peninsula, known as O'Higgins Land in Chile, Tierra de San Martin in Argentina, and originally known as the Palmer Peninsula in the US and as Graham Land in Great Britain, is the northernmost part of the mainland of Antarctica, located at the base of the Southern Hemisphere.

Continent

continentssubcontinentcontinental
Antarctica ( or, ) is Earth's southernmost continent.
Ordered from largest in area to smallest, they are: Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia.

Southern Hemisphere

SouthernaustralS. Hemisphere
It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean.
It contains all or parts of five continents (Antarctica, Australia, about 90% of South America, one third of Africa, and several islands off the continental mainland of Asia), four oceans (Indian, South Atlantic, Southern, and South Pacific) and most of the Pacific Islands in Oceania.

South Pole

90Geographic South PoleSouth
It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean.
Situated on the continent of Antarctica, it is the site of the United States Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station, which was established in 1956 and has been permanently staffed since that year.

Climate of Antarctica

Antarctic climateAntarctic summerAntarctica
Most of Antarctica is a polar desert, with annual precipitation of 200 mm along the coast and far less inland; there has been no rain here for almost 2 million years, yet 80% of the world freshwater reserves are stored here.
The lowest air temperature record on Antarctica was set on 21 July 1983, when −89.2 C was observed at Vostok Station.

Antarctic

Antarctic regionAntarcticasouth polar region
It contains the geographic South Pole and is situated in the Antarctic region of the Southern Hemisphere, almost entirely south of the Antarctic Circle, and is surrounded by the Southern Ocean.
The Antarctic comprises the continent of Antarctica, the Kerguelen Plateau and other island territories located on the Antarctic Plate or south of the Antarctic Convergence.

Vostok Station

VostokSoviet Vostok StationStántsiya Vostók
The temperature in Antarctica has reached −89.2 °C (−128.6 °F) (or even −94.7 °C (−135.8 °F) as measured from space ), though the average for the third quarter (the coldest part of the year) is −63 °C (−81 °F).
Vostok Station (ста́нция Восто́к, literally "Station East") is a Russian research station in inland Princess Elizabeth Land, Antarctica.

Antarctic Treaty System

Antarctic Treaty Consultative MeetingAntarctic TreatyAntarctic
Antarctica is a de facto condominium, governed by parties to the Antarctic Treaty System that have consulting status.
The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively known as the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only continent without a native human population.

Condominium (international law)

condominiumBritish-French condominiumcondominiums
Antarctica is a de facto condominium, governed by parties to the Antarctic Treaty System that have consulting status.

Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen

Fabian von BellingshausenBellingshausenAdmiral Thaddeus Bellingshausen
Antarctica is noted as the last region on Earth in recorded history to be discovered, unseen until 1820 when the Russian expedition of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on Vostok and Mirny sighted the Fimbul ice shelf. According to various organisations (the National Science Foundation, NASA, the University of California, San Diego, the Russian State Museum of the Arctic and Antarctic, among others), ships captained by three men sighted Antarctica or its ice shelf in 1820: Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen (a captain in the Imperial Russian Navy), Edward Bransfield (a captain in the Royal Navy), and Nathaniel Palmer (a sealer from Stonington, Connecticut).
He participated in the First Russian circumnavigation of the globe and subsequently became a leader of another circumnavigation expedition that discovered the continent of Antarctica.

List of Russian explorers

Russian explorersRussian explorerCossack explorers
Antarctica is noted as the last region on Earth in recorded history to be discovered, unseen until 1820 when the Russian expedition of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on Vostok and Mirny sighted the Fimbul ice shelf.
In 1820-1821 a round-the-world expedition led by Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on sloops Vostok and Mirny discovered the continent of Antarctica.

Vostok (sloop-of-war)

VostokVostok'' (sloop-of-war)
Antarctica is noted as the last region on Earth in recorded history to be discovered, unseen until 1820 when the Russian expedition of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on Vostok and Mirny sighted the Fimbul ice shelf.
Vostok was a 28-gun sloop-of-war of the Imperial Russian Navy, the lead ship of the First Russian Antarctic Expedition in 1819–1821, during which Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen (commander of the ship) and Mikhail Lazarev (commanding Mirny, the second ship) circumnavigated the globe, discovered the continent of Antarctica and twice circumnavigated it, and discovered a number of islands and archipelagos in the Southern Ocean and the Pacific.

Terra Australis

Terra Australis IncognitaSouthern ContinentMagellanica
The long-imagined (but undiscovered) south polar continent was originally called Terra Australis, sometimes shortened to 'Australia' as seen in a woodcut illustration titled Sphere of the winds, contained in an astrological textbook published in Frankfurt in 1545.
Captain Cook and his contemporaries knew that the fifth continent (today's Australia), which they called New Holland, was entirely separate from the imagined (but still undiscovered) sixth continent (today's Antarctica).

Edward Bransfield

According to various organisations (the National Science Foundation, NASA, the University of California, San Diego, the Russian State Museum of the Arctic and Antarctic, among others), ships captained by three men sighted Antarctica or its ice shelf in 1820: Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen (a captain in the Imperial Russian Navy), Edward Bransfield (a captain in the Royal Navy), and Nathaniel Palmer (a sealer from Stonington, Connecticut).
He is noted for exploring parts of Antarctica, sighting the Trinity Peninsula in January 1820.

New Holland (Australia)

New HollandAustraliaDutch
Then in the nineteenth century, the colonial authorities in Sydney removed the Dutch name from New Holland.
The continent Antarctica, later named in the 1890s, was still in largely speculative form; it resumed the name Terra Australis (sometimes suffixed Non Cognita, unknown).

West Antarctica

Western AntarcticaLesser AntarcticaWest (or Lesser) Antarctica
The first documented landing on Antarctica was by the American sealer John Davis, apparently at Hughes Bay, near Cape Charles, in West Antarctica on 7 February 1821, although some historians dispute this claim.
West Antarctica, or Lesser Antarctica, one of the two major regions of Antarctica, is the part of that continent that lies within the Western Hemisphere, and includes the Antarctic Peninsula.

Jules Dumont d'Urville

Dumont d'UrvilleDumont d’UrvilleD'Urville
On 22 January 1840, two days after the discovery of the coast west of the Balleny Islands, some members of the crew of the 1837–40 expedition of Jules Dumont d'Urville disembarked on the highest islet of a group of coastal rocky islands about 4 km from Cape Géodésie on the coast of Adélie Land where they took some mineral, algae, and animal samples, erected the French flag and claimed French sovereignty over the territory.
Jules Sébastien César Dumont d'Urville (23 May 1790 – 8 May 1842) was a French explorer and naval officer who explored the south and western Pacific, Australia, New Zealand and Antarctica.

Nathaniel Palmer

Nathaniel B. PalmerNathaniel Brown PalmerPalmer
According to various organisations (the National Science Foundation, NASA, the University of California, San Diego, the Russian State Museum of the Arctic and Antarctic, among others), ships captained by three men sighted Antarctica or its ice shelf in 1820: Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen (a captain in the Imperial Russian Navy), Edward Bransfield (a captain in the Royal Navy), and Nathaniel Palmer (a sealer from Stonington, Connecticut).
He gave his name to Palmer Land, Antarctica, which he explored in 1820 on his Hero sloop.

Wilkes Land

East Antarctic Wilkes Land
That part of Antarctica was named "Wilkes Land", a name it retains to this day.
Wilkes Land is a large district of land in eastern Antarctica, formally claimed by Australia as part of the Australian Antarctic Territory, though the validity of this claim has been placed for the period of the operation of the Antarctic Treaty, to which Australia is a signatory.

Ross Sea

RossRod Bay in the Ross SeaRoss Sea Region Marine Protected Area
Explorer James Clark Ross passed through what is now known as the Ross Sea and discovered Ross Island (both of which were named after him) in 1841.
The Ross Sea is a deep bay of the Southern Ocean in Antarctica, between Victoria Land and Marie Byrd Land and within the Ross Embayment, and is the southernmost sea on Earth.

Mirny (sloop-of-war)

MirnyMirnyyMirni
Antarctica is noted as the last region on Earth in recorded history to be discovered, unseen until 1820 when the Russian expedition of Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen and Mikhail Lazarev on Vostok and Mirny sighted the Fimbul ice shelf.
Mirny was a 20-gun sloop-of-war of the Imperial Russian Navy, the second ship of the First Russian Antarctic Expedition in 1819–1821, during which Fabian Gottlieb von Bellingshausen (commander of the lead ship Vostok) and Mikhail Lazarev (commanding Mirny) circumnavigated the globe, discovered the continent of Antarctica and twice circumnavigated it, and discovered a number of islands and archipelagos in the Southern Ocean and the Pacific.

Mount Erebus

Mt. ErebusErebusMt Erebus
Mount Erebus and Mount Terror are named after two ships from his expedition: and.
Mount Erebus is the second-highest volcano in Antarctica (after Mount Sidley) and the southernmost active volcano on Earth.

Adélie Land

Adelie LandAdélie CoastTerre Adélie
On 22 January 1840, two days after the discovery of the coast west of the Balleny Islands, some members of the crew of the 1837–40 expedition of Jules Dumont d'Urville disembarked on the highest islet of a group of coastal rocky islands about 4 km from Cape Géodésie on the coast of Adélie Land where they took some mineral, algae, and animal samples, erected the French flag and claimed French sovereignty over the territory.
Adélie Land (French: Terre Adélie) is a claimed territory on the continent of Antarctica.

East Antarctica

Eastern AntarcticaEastMaudlandia Antarctic desert
Mercator Cooper landed in East Antarctica on 26 January 1853.
East Antarctica, also called Greater Antarctica, constitutes the majority (two-thirds) of the Antarctic continent, lying on the Indian Ocean side of the continent, separated from West Antarctica by the Transantarctic Mountains.