Schematic of a wave moving rightward down a lossless two-wire transmission line. Black dots represent electrons, and the arrows show the electric field.
A stack of "fishbone" and Yagi–Uda television antennas
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One of the most common types of transmission line, coaxial cable.
Animation of a half-wave dipole antenna radiating radio waves, showing the electric field lines. The antenna in the center is two vertical metal rods connected to a radio transmitter (not shown). The transmitter applies an alternating electric current to the rods, which charges them alternately positive (+) and negative (−). Loops of electric field leave the antenna and travel away at the speed of light; these are the radio waves. In this animation the action is shown slowed down enormously.
Loading coil in a cellphone antenna mounted on the roof of a car. The coil allows the antenna to be shorter than a quarter wavelength and still be resonant.
Variations on the schematic electronic symbol for a transmission line.
Electronic symbol for an antenna
Vertical antenna which may be of any desired height : less than about one-half wavelength of the frequency at which the antenna operates. These antennas may operate either as transmitting or receiving antennas
Antennas of the Atacama Large Millimeter/submillimeter Array.
On the left, characteristics plotted from experimentally obtained data on coordinates with logarithmic abscissa. On the right, an antenna with increased effective inductance between the two points in accordance with the well known operation of shunt tuned circuits adjusted somewhat off resonance.
A transmission line is drawn as two black wires. At a distance x into the line, there is current I(x) travelling through each wire, and there is a voltage difference V(x) between the wires. If the current and voltage come from a single wave (with no reflection), then V(x) / I(x) = Z0, where Z0 is the characteristic impedance of the line.
An automobile's whip antenna, a common example of an omnidirectional antenna.
Standing waves on a transmission line with an open-circuit load (top), and a short-circuit load (bottom). Black dots represent electrons, and the arrows show the electric field.
Half-wave dipole antenna
A type of transmission line called a cage line, used for high power, low frequency applications. It functions similarly to a large coaxial cable. This example is the antenna feed line for a longwave radio transmitter in Poland, which operates at a frequency of 225 kHz and a power of 1200 kW.
Diagram of the electric fields ( blue ) and magnetic fields ( red ) radiated by a dipole antenna ( black rods) during transmission.
A simple example of stepped transmission line consisting of three segments.
Cell phone base station antennas
Standing waves on a half wave dipole driven at its resonant frequency. The waves are shown graphically by bars of color ( red for voltage, V and blue for current, I ) whose width is proportional to the amplitude of the quantity at that point on the antenna.
Typical center-loaded mobile CB antenna with loading coil
Polar plots of the horizontal cross sections of a (virtual) Yagi-Uda-antenna. Outline connects points with 3 dB field power compared to an ISO emitter.
The wave reflected by earth can be considered as emitted by the image antenna.
The currents in an antenna appear as an image in opposite phase when reflected at grazing angles. This causes a phase reversal for waves emitted by a horizontally polarized antenna (center) but not for a vertically polarized antenna (left).
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When one is concerned with the number of wavelengths, or phase, involved in a wave's transit across a segment of transmission line especially, one may simply specify that electrical length, while specification of a physical length, frequency, or velocity factor is omitted. The electrical length is then typically expressed as N wavelengths or as the phase φ expressed in degrees or radians. Thus in a microstrip design one might specify a shorted stub of 60° phase length, which will correspond to different physical lengths when applied to different frequencies. Or one might consider a 2 meter section of coax which has an electrical length of one quarter wavelength (90°) at 37.5 MHz and ask what its electrical length becomes when the circuit is operated at a different frequency.

- Electrical length

Transmission lines are used for purposes such as connecting radio transmitters and receivers with their antennas (they are then called feed lines or feeders), distributing cable television signals, trunklines routing calls between telephone switching centres, computer network connections and high speed computer data buses.

- Transmission line

In addition to the directive gain in beam antennas suffering away from the design frequency, the antenna feedpoint impedance is very sensitive to frequency offsets.

- Electrical length

An antenna lead-in is the transmission line, or feed line, which connects the antenna to a transmitter or receiver.

- Antenna (radio)

By charging the transmission line and then discharging it into a resistive load, a rectangular pulse equal in length to twice the electrical length of the line can be obtained, although with half the voltage.

- Transmission line

Sometimes the resulting (lower) electrical resonant frequency of such a system (antenna plus matching network) is described using the concept of electrical length, so an antenna used at a lower frequency than its resonant frequency is called an electrically short antenna

- Antenna (radio)
Schematic of a wave moving rightward down a lossless two-wire transmission line. Black dots represent electrons, and the arrows show the electric field.

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