Anterograde amnesia

anterogradeamnesia, anterogradeamnesiashort-term memory lossa psychological disorder that causes her constant loss of short and long term memoriesamnesiacamnesicamnesic automatismanterograde memoryAnterograde memory loss
Anterograde amnesia is a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.wikipedia
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Amnesia

memory lossamnesiacamnesic
Anterograde amnesia is a loss of the ability to create new memories after the event that caused amnesia, leading to a partial or complete inability to recall the recent past, while long-term memories from before the event remain intact.
There are two main types of amnesia: retrograde amnesia and anterograde amnesia.

Retrograde amnesia

retrogradeamnesia, retrogradeamnesia
This is in contrast to retrograde amnesia, where memories created prior to the event are lost while new memories can still be created.
It is not to be confused with anterograde amnesia, which deals with the inability to form new memories following the onset of an injury or disease.

Hippocampus

hippocampalhippocampihippocampal formation
To a large degree, anterograde amnesia remains a mysterious ailment because the precise mechanism of storing memories is not yet well understood, although it is known that the regions involved are certain sites in the temporal cortex, especially in the hippocampus and nearby subcortical regions.
People with extensive, bilateral hippocampal damage may experience anterograde amnesia: the inability to form and retain new memories.

Midazolam

VersedDormicumMidazolam hydrochloride
This disorder is usually acquired in one of four ways: One cause is benzodiazepine drugs such as; midazolam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, temazepam, nitrazepam, triazolam, clonazepam, alprazolam, diazepam, and nimetazepam; all of which are known to have powerful amnesic effects.
It works by inducing sleepiness, decreasing anxiety, and causing a loss of ability to create new memories.

Benzodiazepine

benzodiazepinesbenzodiazapinesbenzo
This disorder is usually acquired in one of four ways: One cause is benzodiazepine drugs such as; midazolam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, temazepam, nitrazepam, triazolam, clonazepam, alprazolam, diazepam, and nimetazepam; all of which are known to have powerful amnesic effects.
High doses of many shorter-acting benzodiazepines may also cause anterograde amnesia and dissociation.

Lorazepam

Ativanbenzodiazepine lorazepamdrug of the same name
This disorder is usually acquired in one of four ways: One cause is benzodiazepine drugs such as; midazolam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, temazepam, nitrazepam, triazolam, clonazepam, alprazolam, diazepam, and nimetazepam; all of which are known to have powerful amnesic effects.
It is also used during surgery to interfere with memory formation and to sedate those who are being mechanically ventilated.

Alprazolam

XanaxCalmaxXanny
This disorder is usually acquired in one of four ways: One cause is benzodiazepine drugs such as; midazolam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, temazepam, nitrazepam, triazolam, clonazepam, alprazolam, diazepam, and nimetazepam; all of which are known to have powerful amnesic effects.

Memory consolidation

consolidationmemory reconsolidationreconsolidation
This suggests that memory consolidation for different types of memory takes place in different regions of the brain.
Systematic studies of anterograde amnesia started to emerge in the 1960s and 1970s.

Flunitrazepam

Rohypnolroofiesroofie
This disorder is usually acquired in one of four ways: One cause is benzodiazepine drugs such as; midazolam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, temazepam, nitrazepam, triazolam, clonazepam, alprazolam, diazepam, and nimetazepam; all of which are known to have powerful amnesic effects.
This may appear as lack of concentration, confusion and anterograde amnesia.

Blackout (drug-related amnesia)

blackoutblackoutsblacked out
Anterograde amnesia can also be caused by alcohol intoxication, a phenomenon commonly known as a blackout.
Blackouts are frequently described as having effects similar to that of anterograde amnesia, in which the subject cannot recall any events after the event that caused amnesia.

Temazepam

RestoriloxydiazepamTemaz
This disorder is usually acquired in one of four ways: One cause is benzodiazepine drugs such as; midazolam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, temazepam, nitrazepam, triazolam, clonazepam, alprazolam, diazepam, and nimetazepam; all of which are known to have powerful amnesic effects.
Anterograde amnesia may also develop, as may respiratory depression in higher doses.

Eszopiclone

Lunesta
This has also been recorded in non-benzodiazapine sedatives or "z-drugs" which act on the same set of receptors; such as zolpidem (also known as Ambien), eszopiclone (also known as Lunesta), and zopiclone (also known by brand names Imovane and Zimovane).
Long-term use of sedative-hypnotics for insomnia lacks an evidence base and has traditionally been discouraged for reasons that include concerns about such potential adverse drug effects as cognitive impairment (anterograde amnesia), daytime sedation, motor incoordination, and increased risk of motor vehicle accidents and falls.

Zopiclone

Imovane
This has also been recorded in non-benzodiazapine sedatives or "z-drugs" which act on the same set of receptors; such as zolpidem (also known as Ambien), eszopiclone (also known as Lunesta), and zopiclone (also known by brand names Imovane and Zimovane).
Long-term use of sedative-hypnotics for insomnia lacks an evidence base and is discouraged for reasons that include concerns about such potential adverse drug effects as cognitive impairment (anterograde amnesia), daytime sedation, motor incoordination, and increased risk of motor vehicle accidents and falls.

Clonazepam

KlonopinRivotril
This disorder is usually acquired in one of four ways: One cause is benzodiazepine drugs such as; midazolam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, temazepam, nitrazepam, triazolam, clonazepam, alprazolam, diazepam, and nimetazepam; all of which are known to have powerful amnesic effects.

Short-term effects of alcohol consumption

Short-term effects of alcoholalcoholalcohol consumption
Anterograde amnesia can also be caused by alcohol intoxication, a phenomenon commonly known as a blackout.
GABA could also be responsible for causing the memory impairment that many people experience.

Clive Wearing

A similar case involved Clive Wearing, an accomplished musicologist who contracted a cold sore virus that attacked his brain, causing herpes simplex encephalitis.
Clive Wearing (born 11 May 1938) is a British former musicologist, conductor, tenor and keyboardist who suffers from chronic anterograde and retrograde amnesia.

Explicit memory

declarative memorydeclarativeexplicit
In most cases of anterograde amnesia, patients lose declarative memory, or the recollection of facts, but they retain nondeclarative memory, often called procedural memory.
Guy Pearce plays an ex-insurance investigator suffering from severe anterograde amnesia caused by a head injury.

50 First Dates

50 First Dates: Love Songs from the Original Motion Picture50 First Dates'' soundtrack50 First Dates: Motion Picture Soundtrack
Notable examples include Lucy Whitmore in 50 First Dates, Dory in Finding Nemo and Finding Dory, Jonathan Archer in the Star Trek: Enterprise episode "Twilight", Joseph Gordon-Levitt in The Lookout, Kaori Fujimiya in One Week Friends, Chihiro Shindou in Ef: A Fairy Tale of the Two, Christine Lucas in Before I Go to Sleep, Gus in Remember Sunday, and Sanjay in Ghajini.
Realizing she has anterograde amnesia, he resolves to win her over again each new day.

Temporal lobe

medial temporal lobetemporaltemporal cortex
To a large degree, anterograde amnesia remains a mysterious ailment because the precise mechanism of storing memories is not yet well understood, although it is known that the regions involved are certain sites in the temporal cortex, especially in the hippocampus and nearby subcortical regions.
The medial temporal lobes include the hippocampi, which are essential for memory storage, therefore damage to this area can result in impairment in new memory formation leading to permanent or temporary anterograde amnesia.

Finding Dory

DoryFinding Nemo 2sequel
Notable examples include Lucy Whitmore in 50 First Dates, Dory in Finding Nemo and Finding Dory, Jonathan Archer in the Star Trek: Enterprise episode "Twilight", Joseph Gordon-Levitt in The Lookout, Kaori Fujimiya in One Week Friends, Chihiro Shindou in Ef: A Fairy Tale of the Two, Christine Lucas in Before I Go to Sleep, Gus in Remember Sunday, and Sanjay in Ghajini.
The film focuses on the amnesiac fish Dory, who journeys to be reunited with her parents.

Korsakoff syndrome

Korsakoff's syndromealcoholic Korsakoff syndromealcohol amnestic disorder
Chronic alcoholism often leads to a thiamine (vitamin B 1 ) deficiency in the brain, causing Korsakoff's syndrome, a neurological disorder which is generally preceded by an acute neurological condition known as Wernicke's encephalopathy (WE).

Ghajini (2005 film)

GhajiniGajiniof the same name
Notable examples include Lucy Whitmore in 50 First Dates, Dory in Finding Nemo and Finding Dory, Jonathan Archer in the Star Trek: Enterprise episode "Twilight", Joseph Gordon-Levitt in The Lookout, Kaori Fujimiya in One Week Friends, Chihiro Shindou in Ef: A Fairy Tale of the Two, Christine Lucas in Before I Go to Sleep, Gus in Remember Sunday, and Sanjay in Ghajini.
The film explores the life of a rich businessman who develops anterograde amnesia following a violent encounter in which his love interest was killed by the villain.

Episodic memory

episodic memoriesepisodicEpisodic knowledge
Furthermore, the data do not explain the dichotomy that exists in the MTL memory system between episodic memory and semantic memory (described below).
For example, anterograde amnesia, from damage of the medial temporal lobe, is an impairment of declarative memory that affects both episodic and semantic memory operations.

Soldier of the Mist

Latro
The main character in Gene Wolfe's novels Soldier of the Mist, and the anime characters Vash the Stampede from Trigun to Index and Touma from A Certain Magical Index suffers from both retrograde and anterograde amnesia too in Touma's case it's not being able to create new memories with a character Shokuhou Misaki.
Soldier of the Mist and the sequel Soldier of Arete by Gene Wolfe follow the adventures of a foreign mercenary named Latro through Ancient Greece in 479 B.C. The protagonist is an unusual hero because he suffers from retrograde (the inability to recall past memories) and anterograde (the inability to create new memories) amnesia.

Memento (film)

MementoMemento'' (film)Memento‘s
Christopher Nolan's psychological crime film Memento (2000) contains a distinguished depiction of anterograde amnesia, in that the character Leonard Shelby is trying to identify and kill the man who raped and murdered his wife, and does so through a system of writing crucial details related to the search on his body and on the blank spaces of Polaroid photographs.
Guy Pearce stars as a man who, as a result of a past trauma, has anterograde amnesia (the inability to form new memories) and has short-term memory loss approximately every fifteen minutes.