Structural formula of benzodiazepines.
Hippocampus (brain)
Midazolam 1 & 5 mg/mL injections (Canada)
Temazepam (Normison) 10 mg tablets
Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Benzodiazepines were ranked in this graph 7th in dependence, physical harm, and social harm.
Diazepam 2 mg and 5 mg diazepam tablets, which are commonly used in the treatment of benzodiazepine withdrawal.
Chlordiazepoxide 5 mg capsules, which are sometimes used as an alternative to diazepam for benzodiazepine withdrawal. Like diazepam it has a long elimination half-life and long-acting active metabolites.
Schematic diagram of the (α1)2(β2)2(γ2) GABAA receptor complex that depicts the five-protein subunits that form the receptor, the chloride (Cl−) ion channel pore at the center, the two GABA active binding sites at the α1 and β2 interfaces and the benzodiazepine (BZD) allosteric binding site at the α1 and γ2 interface.
Left: The 1,4-benzodiazepine ring system. Right: 5-phenyl-1H-benzo[e] [1,4]diazepin-2(3H)-one forms the skeleton of many of the most common benzodiazepine pharmaceuticals, such as diazepam (7-chloro-1-methyl substituted).
A pharmacophore model of the benzodiazepine binding site on the GABAA receptor. White sticks represent the carbon atoms of the benzodiazepine diazepam, while green represents carbon atoms of the nonbenzodiazepine CGS-9896. Red and blue sticks are oxygen and nitrogen atoms that are present in both structures. The red spheres labeled H1 and H2/A3 are, respectively, hydrogen bond donating and accepting sites in the receptor, while L1, L2, and L3 denote lipophilic binding sites.
The molecular structure of chlordiazepoxide, the first benzodiazepine. It was marketed by Hoffmann–La Roche from 1960 branded as Librium.
Xanax (alprazolam) 2 mg tri-score tablets

High doses of many shorter-acting benzodiazepines may also cause anterograde amnesia and dissociation.

- Benzodiazepine

This disorder is usually acquired in one of four ways: One cause is benzodiazepine drugs such as midazolam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, temazepam, nitrazepam, triazolam, clonazepam, alprazolam, diazepam, and nimetazepam; all of these are known to have powerful amnesic effects.

- Anterograde amnesia
Structural formula of benzodiazepines.

9 related topics with Alpha

Overall

0.5 mg tablets of the Ativan brand of lorazepam

Lorazepam

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0.5 mg tablets of the Ativan brand of lorazepam
1987 advertisement. "In a world where certainties are few...no wonder Ativan is prescribed by so many caring clinicians."

Lorazepam, sold under the brand name Ativan among others, is a benzodiazepine medication.

It is also used during surgery to interfere with memory formation and to sedate those who are being mechanically ventilated.

Alprazolam

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Alprazolam pills in boxes, as sold in France. Both Xanax (original Pfizer alprazolam product) and various generic forms of alprazolam are depicted here.
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Side effects from alprazolam
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Binding at the α1β3γ2 GABAA receptor. Alprazolam with red space-filling carbon atoms. γ2 receptor subunit in mint green. The α1' subunit is hidden.
Alprazolam is metabolized into 4-hydroxyalprazolam (top) and α-hydroxyalprazolam (bottom).

Alprazolam, sold under the brand name Xanax, among others, is a fast-acting tranquilizer of medium duration in the triazolobenzodiazepine (TBZD) class, which are benzodiazepines (BZDs) fused with a triazole ring.

Anterograde amnesia and concentration problems

Temazepam under the brand name Temtabs 10 mg tablets in Australia.

Temazepam

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Temazepam under the brand name Temtabs 10 mg tablets in Australia.
Generic temazepam 10 mg tablets
Prepn: S. C. Bell, (1965 to Am. Home. Prod.). See also: E. Reeder et al., and  (1967, 1968, both to Hoffmann-La Roche).
Apro temazepam
Normison (temazepam) 10 mg tablets

Temazepam (sold under the brand names Restoril among others) is a medication of the benzodiazepine class which is now generally used to treat severe or debilitating insomnia.

Anterograde amnesia may also develop, as may respiratory depression in higher doses.

Chemical structure of the prototypical Z-drug zolpidem

Nonbenzodiazepine

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Nonbenzodiazepines, sometimes referred to colloquially as Z-drugs (as many of them begin with the letter "z"), are a class of psychoactive drugs that are very benzodiazepine-like in nature.

Nonbenzodiazepines, sometimes referred to colloquially as Z-drugs (as many of them begin with the letter "z"), are a class of psychoactive drugs that are very benzodiazepine-like in nature.

Chemical structure of the prototypical Z-drug zolpidem
Core structures of selected nonbenzodiazepines (left three diagrams) and the structure of benzodiazepines (right) for comparison

Nonbenzodiazepine pharmacodynamics are almost entirely the same as benzodiazepine drugs and therefore exhibit similar benefits, side-effects, and risks.

Long-term use of sedative-hypnotics for insomnia lacks an evidence base and is discouraged for reasons that include concerns about such potential adverse drug effects as cognitive impairment (anterograde amnesia), daytime sedation, motor incoordination, and increased risk of motor vehicle accidents and falls.

Midazolam

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Injectable midazolam in 1 and 5 mg/ml strengths
Oklahoma State Penitentiary, the site of the state of Oklahoma's execution chamber

Midazolam, sold under the brand name Versed among others, is a benzodiazepine medication used for anesthesia, procedural sedation, and severe agitation.

It works by inducing sleepiness, decreasing anxiety, and causing a loss of ability to create new memories.

Eszopiclone

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Medication used in the treatment of insomnia.

Medication used in the treatment of insomnia.

Long-term use of sedative-hypnotics for insomnia lacks an evidence base and has traditionally been discouraged for reasons that include concerns about such potential adverse drug effects as cognitive impairment (anterograde amnesia), daytime sedation, motor incoordination, and increased risk of motor vehicle accidents and falls.

A study of non-medical use potential of eszopiclone found that in persons with a known history of non-medical benzodiazepine use, eszopiclone at doses of 6 and 12 mg produced effects similar to those of diazepam 20 mg. The study found that at these doses which are two or more times greater than the maximum recommended doses, a dose-related increase in reports of amnesia, sedation, sleepiness, and hallucinations was observed for both eszopiclone (Lunesta) as well as for diazepam (Valium).

Clonazepam

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Medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, anxiety, and the movement disorder known as akathisia.

Medication used to prevent and treat seizures, panic disorder, anxiety, and the movement disorder known as akathisia.

Brand name clonazepam tablets
Klonopin 0.5 mg tablet
Klonopin 1 mg tablet
Klonopin 2 mg tablet
Clonazepam orally disintegrating tablet, 0.25 mg

It is a tranquilizer of the benzodiazepine class.

Anterograde amnesia (common with higher doses)

Amnesie

Amnesia

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Deficit in memory caused by brain damage or disease, but it can also be caused temporarily by the use of various sedatives and hypnotic drugs.

Deficit in memory caused by brain damage or disease, but it can also be caused temporarily by the use of various sedatives and hypnotic drugs.

Amnesie

There are two main types of amnesia: retrograde amnesia and anterograde amnesia.

Drug-induced amnesia is intentionally caused by injection of an amnestic drug to help a patient forget surgery or medical procedures, particularly those not performed under full anesthesia, or likely to be particularly traumatic. Such drugs are also referred to as "premedicants". Most commonly, a 2-halogenated benzodiazepine such as midazolam or flunitrazepam is the drug of choice, although other strongly amnestic drugs such as propofol or scopolamine may also be used for this application. Memories of the short time-frame in which the procedure was performed are permanently lost or at least substantially reduced, but once the drug wears off, memory is no longer affected.

Rohypnol 1 mg tablets.

Flunitrazepam

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Rohypnol 1 mg tablets.
Hypnodorm 1 mg flunitrazepam tablets, Australia
Rohypnol
Icelandic Flunitrazepam

Flunitrazepam, also known as Rohypnol among other names, is a benzodiazepine used to treat severe insomnia and assist with anesthesia.

This may appear as lack of concentration, confusion and anterograde amnesia—the inability to create memories while under the influence.