Hippocampus (brain)
0.5 mg tablets of the Ativan brand of lorazepam
1987 advertisement. "In a world where certainties are few...no wonder Ativan is prescribed by so many caring clinicians."

It is also used during surgery to interfere with memory formation and to sedate those who are being mechanically ventilated.

- Lorazepam

This disorder is usually acquired in one of four ways: One cause is benzodiazepine drugs such as midazolam, flunitrazepam, lorazepam, temazepam, nitrazepam, triazolam, clonazepam, alprazolam, diazepam, and nimetazepam; all of these are known to have powerful amnesic effects.

- Anterograde amnesia
Hippocampus (brain)

3 related topics

Alpha

Structural formula of benzodiazepines.

Benzodiazepine

Fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

Fusion of a benzene ring and a diazepine ring.

Structural formula of benzodiazepines.
Midazolam 1 & 5 mg/mL injections (Canada)
Temazepam (Normison) 10 mg tablets
Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Benzodiazepines were ranked in this graph 7th in dependence, physical harm, and social harm.
Diazepam 2 mg and 5 mg diazepam tablets, which are commonly used in the treatment of benzodiazepine withdrawal.
Chlordiazepoxide 5 mg capsules, which are sometimes used as an alternative to diazepam for benzodiazepine withdrawal. Like diazepam it has a long elimination half-life and long-acting active metabolites.
Schematic diagram of the (α1)2(β2)2(γ2) GABAA receptor complex that depicts the five-protein subunits that form the receptor, the chloride (Cl−) ion channel pore at the center, the two GABA active binding sites at the α1 and β2 interfaces and the benzodiazepine (BZD) allosteric binding site at the α1 and γ2 interface.
Left: The 1,4-benzodiazepine ring system. Right: 5-phenyl-1H-benzo[e] [1,4]diazepin-2(3H)-one forms the skeleton of many of the most common benzodiazepine pharmaceuticals, such as diazepam (7-chloro-1-methyl substituted).
A pharmacophore model of the benzodiazepine binding site on the GABAA receptor. White sticks represent the carbon atoms of the benzodiazepine diazepam, while green represents carbon atoms of the nonbenzodiazepine CGS-9896. Red and blue sticks are oxygen and nitrogen atoms that are present in both structures. The red spheres labeled H1 and H2/A3 are, respectively, hydrogen bond donating and accepting sites in the receptor, while L1, L2, and L3 denote lipophilic binding sites.
The molecular structure of chlordiazepoxide, the first benzodiazepine. It was marketed by Hoffmann–La Roche from 1960 branded as Librium.
Xanax (alprazolam) 2 mg tri-score tablets

High doses of many shorter-acting benzodiazepines may also cause anterograde amnesia and dissociation.

Likewise, Canadian Psychiatric Association (CPA) recommends benzodiazepines alprazolam, bromazepam, lorazepam, and diazepam only as a second-line choice, if the treatment with two different antidepressants was unsuccessful.

Midazolam

Benzodiazepine medication used for anesthesia, procedural sedation, trouble sleeping, and severe agitation.

Benzodiazepine medication used for anesthesia, procedural sedation, trouble sleeping, and severe agitation.

Injectable midazolam in 1 and 5 mg/ml strengths
Oklahoma State Penitentiary, the site of the state of Oklahoma's execution chamber

It works by inducing sleepiness, decreasing anxiety, and causing a loss of ability to create new memories.

However, for long-term sedation, lorazepam is preferred due to its long duration of action, and propofol has advantages over midazolam when used in the ICU for sedation, such as shorter weaning time and earlier tracheal extubation.

Alprazolam

Fast-acting tranquilizer of medium duration in the triazolobenzodiazepine class, which are benzodiazepines (BZDs) fused with a triazole ring.

Fast-acting tranquilizer of medium duration in the triazolobenzodiazepine class, which are benzodiazepines (BZDs) fused with a triazole ring.

Alprazolam pills in boxes, as sold in France. Both Xanax (original Pfizer alprazolam product) and various generic forms of alprazolam are depicted here.
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Side effects from alprazolam
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Binding at the α1β3γ2 GABAA receptor. Alprazolam with red space-filling carbon atoms. γ2 receptor subunit in mint green. The α1' subunit is hidden.
Alprazolam is metabolized into 4-hydroxyalprazolam (top) and α-hydroxyalprazolam (bottom).

Anterograde amnesia and concentration problems

The benzodiazepines diazepam and oxazepam have been found to produce fewer withdrawal reactions than alprazolam, temazepam, or lorazepam.