Lobes of the human brain (temporal lobe is shown in green)
Hippocampus (brain)
Animation showing the position of the human left temporal lobe

To a large degree, anterograde amnesia remains a mysterious ailment because the precise mechanism of storing memories is not yet well understood, although it is known that the regions involved are certain sites in the temporal cortex, especially in the hippocampus and nearby subcortical regions.

- Anterograde amnesia

The medial temporal lobes include the hippocampi, which are essential for memory storage, therefore damage to this area can result in impairment in new memory formation leading to permanent or temporary anterograde amnesia.

- Temporal lobe
Lobes of the human brain (temporal lobe is shown in green)

5 related topics

Alpha

Multi-store model: Atkinson and Shiffrin's (1968) original model of memory, consisting of the sensory register, short-term store, and long-term store.

Long-term memory

Stage of the Atkinson–Shiffrin memory model in which informative knowledge is held indefinitely.

Stage of the Atkinson–Shiffrin memory model in which informative knowledge is held indefinitely.

Multi-store model: Atkinson and Shiffrin's (1968) original model of memory, consisting of the sensory register, short-term store, and long-term store.

Research by Meulemans and Van der Linden (2003) found that amnesiac patients with damage to the medial temporal lobe performed more poorly on explicit learning tests than did healthy controls.

His subsequent total anterograde amnesia and partial retrograde amnesia provided the first evidence for the localization of memory function, and further clarified the differences between declarative and procedural memory.

Humans have two hippocampi, one in each hemisphere of the brain. They are located in the medial temporal lobes of the cerebrum. In this lateral view of the human brain, the frontal lobe is at the left, the occipital lobe at the right, and the temporal and parietal lobes have largely been removed to reveal one of the hippocampi underneath.

Hippocampus

Major component of the brain of humans and other vertebrates.

Major component of the brain of humans and other vertebrates.

Humans have two hippocampi, one in each hemisphere of the brain. They are located in the medial temporal lobes of the cerebrum. In this lateral view of the human brain, the frontal lobe is at the left, the occipital lobe at the right, and the temporal and parietal lobes have largely been removed to reveal one of the hippocampi underneath.
Image 1: The human hippocampus and fornix (left) compared with a seahorse (right)
Image 2: Cross-section of cerebral hemisphere showing structure and location of hippocampus
Image 3: Coronal section of the brain of a macaque monkey, showing hippocampus (circled)
Image 4: Basic circuit of the hippocampus, as drawn by Cajal DG: dentate gyrus. Sub: subiculum. EC: entorhinal cortex
Image 5: Hippocampal location and regions
Rats and cognitive maps
Image 6: Spatial firing patterns of 8 place cells recorded from the CA1 layer of a rat. The rat ran back and forth along an elevated track, stopping at each end to eat a small food reward. Dots indicate positions where action potentials were recorded, with color indicating which neuron emitted that action potential.
Image 7: Examples of rat hippocampal EEG and CA1 neural activity in the theta (awake/behaving) and LIA (slow-wave sleep) modes. Each plot shows 20 seconds of data, with a hippocampal EEG trace at the top, spike rasters from 40 simultaneously recorded CA1 pyramidal cells in the middle (each raster line represents a different cell), and a plot of running speed at the bottom. The top plot represents a time period during which the rat was actively searching for scattered food pellets. For the bottom plot the rat was asleep.
350px
Image 9: An EEG showing epilepsy right-hippocampal seizure onset
Image 10: An EEG showing epilepsy left-hippocampal seizure onset
Image 11: Drawing by Italian pathologist Camillo Golgi of a hippocampus stained using the silver nitrate method
thumb|Hippocampus highlighted in green on coronal T1 MRI images
thumb|Hippocampus highlighted in green on sagittal T1 MRI images
thumb|Hippocampus highlighted in green on transversal T1 MRI images

People with extensive, bilateral hippocampal damage may experience anterograde amnesia: the inability to form and retain new memories.

This ridge can also be seen as an inward fold of the archicortex into the medial temporal lobe.

Overview of the forms and functions of memory.

Episodic memory

Memory of everyday events that can be explicitly stated or conjured.

Memory of everyday events that can be explicitly stated or conjured.

Overview of the forms and functions of memory.

The formation of new episodic memories requires the medial temporal lobe, a structure that includes the hippocampus.

For example, anterograde amnesia, from damage of the medial temporal lobe, is an impairment of declarative memory that affects both episodic and semantic memory operations.

Hippocampus as seen in red

Explicit memory

One of the two main types of long-term human memory, the other of which is implicit memory.

One of the two main types of long-term human memory, the other of which is implicit memory.

Hippocampus as seen in red
Amygdala as seen in red
The Morris water maze

The regions of the diencephalon have shown brain activation when a remote memory is being recovered and the occipital lobe, ventral temporal lobe, and fusiform gyrus all play a role in memory formation.

Guy Pearce plays an ex-insurance investigator suffering from severe anterograde amnesia caused by a head injury.

Amnesie

Amnesia

Deficit in memory caused by brain damage or disease, but it can also be caused temporarily by the use of various sedatives and hypnotic drugs.

Deficit in memory caused by brain damage or disease, but it can also be caused temporarily by the use of various sedatives and hypnotic drugs.

Amnesie

There are two main types of amnesia: retrograde amnesia and anterograde amnesia.

Case studies also show that amnesia is typically associated with damage to the medial temporal lobe.