Anthocyanin

anthocyaninsanthocyanin biosynthesisE163red-colored pigmentsAnthocyanescenceanthocyanicanthocyanidin 3-O-beta-D-glucosideanthocyanidin-3-O-beta-D-glucosideanthocyanin 3-O-glucosideanthrocyanin
Anthocyanins (also anthocyans; from Greek: ἄνθος (anthos) "flower" and κυάνεος/κυανοῦς kyaneos/kyanous "dark blue") are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, blue or black.wikipedia
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Cyanidin

Most frequently occurring in nature are the glycosides of cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, and petunidin.
It is a particular type of anthocyanidin (glycoside version called anthocyanins).

Betalain

betalainsbetaxanthinbetacyanins
Not all land plants contain anthocyanin; in the Caryophyllales (including cactus, beets, and amaranth), they are replaced by betalains.
Betalains are a class of red and yellow indole-derived pigments found in plants of the Caryophyllales, where they replace anthocyanin pigments.

Black rice

purple riceblackpurple
Food plants rich in anthocyanins include the blueberry, raspberry, black rice, and black soybean, among many others that are red, blue, purple, or black. Plants rich in anthocyanins are Vaccinium species, such as blueberry, cranberry, and bilberry; Rubus berries, including black raspberry, red raspberry, and blackberry; blackcurrant, cherry, eggplant (aubergine) peel, black rice, ube, Okinawan sweet potato, Concord grape, muscadine grape, red cabbage, and violet petals.
The bran hull (outermost layer) of black rice contains one of the highest levels of anthocyanins found in food.

PH

pH levelneutralpH value
Anthocyanins (also anthocyans; from Greek: ἄνθος (anthos) "flower" and κυάνεος/κυανοῦς kyaneos/kyanous "dark blue") are water-soluble vacuolar pigments that, depending on their pH, may appear red, purple, blue or black.
pH-dependent plant pigments that can be used as pH indicators occur in many plants, including hibiscus, red cabbage (anthocyanin) and red wine.

Bilberry

bilberriesbillberryblueberry
Plants rich in anthocyanins are Vaccinium species, such as blueberry, cranberry, and bilberry; Rubus berries, including black raspberry, red raspberry, and blackberry; blackcurrant, cherry, eggplant (aubergine) peel, black rice, ube, Okinawan sweet potato, Concord grape, muscadine grape, red cabbage, and violet petals.
Bilberries and blueberries contain diverse anthocyanins, including delphinidin and cyanidin glycosides.

Red cabbage

Brassica oleracea var. capitata L.purple cabbagePurple-red cabbage
Plants rich in anthocyanins are Vaccinium species, such as blueberry, cranberry, and bilberry; Rubus berries, including black raspberry, red raspberry, and blackberry; blackcurrant, cherry, eggplant (aubergine) peel, black rice, ube, Okinawan sweet potato, Concord grape, muscadine grape, red cabbage, and violet petals.
However, the plant changes its color according to the pH value of the soil, due to a pigment belonging to anthocyanins.

Leaf

leavesaxilfoliage
They occur in all tissues of higher plants, including leaves, stems, roots, flowers, and fruits.
Red anthocyanin pigments are now thought to be produced in the leaf as it dies, possibly to mask the yellow hue left when the chlorophyll is lost—yellow leaves appear to attract herbivores such as aphids.

Potato

potatoesSolanum tuberosumIrish potato
Anthocyanins are less abundant in banana, asparagus, pea, fennel, pear, and potato, and may be totally absent in certain cultivars of green gooseberries.
Anthocyanins mainly responsible for red or blue pigmentation in potato cultivars do not have nutritional significance, but are used for visual variety and consumer appeal.

Adirondack Blue

Adirondack Blue potatoblue
Nature, traditional agriculture methods, and plant breeding have produced various uncommon crops containing anthocyanins, including blue- or red-flesh potatoes and purple or red broccoli, cabbage, cauliflower, carrots, and corn.
The 'Adirondack' varieties are unusual because both the skin and the flesh are colored and have high levels of anthocyanins.

Blueberry

blueberriesCyanococcusWild Blueberry
Plants rich in anthocyanins are Vaccinium species, such as blueberry, cranberry, and bilberry; Rubus berries, including black raspberry, red raspberry, and blackberry; blackcurrant, cherry, eggplant (aubergine) peel, black rice, ube, Okinawan sweet potato, Concord grape, muscadine grape, red cabbage, and violet petals.
Blueberries contain anthocyanins, other polyphenols and various phytochemicals under preliminary research for their potential role in the human body.

Dioscorea alata

ubepurple yamKinampay
Plants rich in anthocyanins are Vaccinium species, such as blueberry, cranberry, and bilberry; Rubus berries, including black raspberry, red raspberry, and blackberry; blackcurrant, cherry, eggplant (aubergine) peel, black rice, ube, Okinawan sweet potato, Concord grape, muscadine grape, red cabbage, and violet petals.
The violet cultivars, in particular, turn dishes distinctively vivid violet due to the high amount of anthocyanins.

Blood orange

blood orangesRed OrangeArancia Rossa
The distinctive dark flesh color is due to the presence of anthocyanins, a family of polyphenol pigments common to many flowers and fruit, but uncommon in citrus fruits.

Aronia

chokeberrychokeberriesaronia berries
The highest recorded amount appears to be specifically in the seed coat of black soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.) containing approximately 2 g per 100 g, in purple corn kernels and husks, and in the skins and pulp of black chokeberry (Aronia melanocarpa L.) (see table).
Aronia berries and chokecherries both contain polyphenolic compounds, such as anthocyanins, yet the two plants are distantly related within the family Rosaceae.

Chlorophyll

chlorophyllschlorophyll ''aLeaf green
The absorbance pattern responsible for the red color of anthocyanins may be complementary to that of green chlorophyll in photosynthetically-active tissues such as young Quercus coccifera leaves.
Anthocyanins are other plant pigments.

Blackberry

blackberriesblackberry bushbramble
Plants rich in anthocyanins are Vaccinium species, such as blueberry, cranberry, and bilberry; Rubus berries, including black raspberry, red raspberry, and blackberry; blackcurrant, cherry, eggplant (aubergine) peel, black rice, ube, Okinawan sweet potato, Concord grape, muscadine grape, red cabbage, and violet petals.
Blackberries contain numerous phytochemicals including polyphenols, flavonoids, anthocyanins, salicylic acid, ellagic acid, and fiber.

Maize

cornZea mayscorn (maize)
While yellow maizes derive their color from lutein and zeaxanthin, in red-colored maizes, the kernel coloration is due to anthocyanins and phlobaphenes.

Petunidin

Most frequently occurring in nature are the glycosides of cyanidin, delphinidin, malvidin, pelargonidin, peonidin, and petunidin.
Petunidin is referred as E165f, E163 and following numbers corresponding to anthocyanins in the food coloring E number list.

E number

E-numberEE numbers
Anthocyanins are approved for use as food colorants in the European Union, Australia, and New Zealand, having colorant code E163.

Autumn leaf color

fall foliageautumn leavesautumn foliage
The reds, purples, and their blended combinations responsible for autumn foliage are derived from anthocyanins.
These pigments are present throughout the year, but the red pigments, the anthocyanins, are synthesized de novo once roughly half of chlorophyll has been degraded.

Flavonoid

flavonoidsflavanoidbioflavonoid
Anthocyanins belong to a parent class of molecules called flavonoids synthesized via the phenylpropanoid pathway.
Anthocyanidins are the aglycones of anthocyanins; they use the flavylium (2-phenylchromenylium) ion skeleton.

Vitis rotundifolia

Muscadinemuscadinesmuscadine grape
Plants rich in anthocyanins are Vaccinium species, such as blueberry, cranberry, and bilberry; Rubus berries, including black raspberry, red raspberry, and blackberry; blackcurrant, cherry, eggplant (aubergine) peel, black rice, ube, Okinawan sweet potato, Concord grape, muscadine grape, red cabbage, and violet petals.

Anthocyanidin

anthocyanidins3-hydroxyanthocyanidins
Anthocyanins are derived from anthocyanidins by adding sugars.
Anthocyanidins are common plant pigments, the sugar-free counterparts of anthocyanins.

Açaí palm

açaíEuterpe oleraceaacai
The anthocyanins of açaí likely have relevance to antioxidant capacity only in the plant's natural defense mechanisms, and in vitro.

Viola (plant)

violetViolaviolets
Plants rich in anthocyanins are Vaccinium species, such as blueberry, cranberry, and bilberry; Rubus berries, including black raspberry, red raspberry, and blackberry; blackcurrant, cherry, eggplant (aubergine) peel, black rice, ube, Okinawan sweet potato, Concord grape, muscadine grape, red cabbage, and violet petals.
Many Viola species contain antioxidants called anthocyanins.

Grape

grapeswine grapewhite grape
Anthocyanin extracts are not specifically listed among approved color additives for foods in the United States; however, grape juice, red grape skin and many fruit and vegetable juices, which are approved for use as colorants, are rich in naturally occurring anthocyanins.
Mutations in two regulatory genes of white grapes turn off production of anthocyanins, which are responsible for the color of purple grapes.