A report on Anthropology

An anthropologist with indigenous American people
Bernardino de Sahagún is considered to be the founder of modern anthropology.
Forensic anthropologists can help identify skeletonized human remains, such as these found lying in scrub in Western Australia, c. 1900–1910.
The Rosetta Stone was an example of ancient communication.
A Punu tribe mask, Gabon, Central Africa
Five of the seven known fossil teeth of Homo luzonensis found in Callao Cave.

Scientific study of humanity, concerned with human behavior, human biology, cultures, societies, and linguistics, in both the present and past, including past human species.

- Anthropology
An anthropologist with indigenous American people

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Edward Burnett Tylor, founder of cultural anthropology

Cultural anthropology

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Edward Burnett Tylor, founder of cultural anthropology
In the unilineal evolution model at left, all cultures progress through set stages, while in the multilineal evolution model at right, distinctive culture histories are emphasized.
Franz Boas (1858–1942), one of the pioneers of modern anthropology, often called the "Father of American Anthropology"
Margaret Mead (1901–1978)
Ruth Benedict in 1937

Cultural anthropology is a branch of anthropology focused on the study of cultural variation among humans.

Ibn Khaldun statue in Tunis, Tunisia (1332–1406)

Sociology

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Social science that focuses on society, human social behavior, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and aspects of culture associated with everyday life.

Social science that focuses on society, human social behavior, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and aspects of culture associated with everyday life.

Ibn Khaldun statue in Tunis, Tunisia (1332–1406)
Auguste Comte (1798–1857)
Karl Marx (1818–1883)
Herbert Spencer (1820–1903)
Max Weber
Georg Simmel
Émile Durkheim
Bust of Ferdinand Tönnies in Husum, Germany
Anthony Giddens
The bean machine, designed by early social research methodologist Sir Francis Galton to demonstrate the normal distribution, which is important to much quantitative hypothesis testing.
A social network diagram: individuals (or 'nodes') connected by relationships
Max Horkheimer (left, front), Theodor Adorno (right, front), and Jürgen Habermas (right, back) 1965
"Rosie the Riveter" was an iconic symbol of the American homefront and a departure from gender roles due to wartime necessity.
Jürgen Habermas
Harrison White

The field predominated in continental Europe, with British anthropology and statistics generally following on a separate trajectory.

Franz Boas

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Boas's dissertation: Beiträge zur Erkenntniss der Farbe des Wassers
An illustration from Evidence as to Man's Place in Nature (1863) by Thomas Henry Huxley, which became emblematic of the now-discredited idea of evolution as linear progress.
"Franz Boas posing for figure in US Natural History Museum exhibit entitled "Hamats'a coming out of secret room" 1895 or before. Courtesy of National Anthropology Archives. (Kwakiutl culture)
Columbia University library in 1903
Drawing of a Kwakiutl mask from Boas's The Social Organization and the Secret Societies of the Kwakiutl Indians (1897). Wooden skulls hang from below the mask, which represents one of the cannibal bird helpers of Bakbakwalinooksiwey.

Franz Uri Boas (July 9, 1858 – December 21, 1942) was a German-born American anthropologist and a pioneer of modern anthropology who has been called the "Father of American Anthropology".

The British Museum, London

Social anthropology

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Study of patterns of behaviour in human societies and cultures.

Study of patterns of behaviour in human societies and cultures.

The British Museum, London
E.B. Tylor, 19th-century British anthropologist
Bronislaw Malinowski, Anthropologist at the London School of Economics
The main LSE entrance
Alfred R. Radcliffe-Brown

It is the dominant constituent of anthropology throughout the United Kingdom and Commonwealth and much of Europe, where it is distinguished from cultural anthropology.

Pygmy music has been polyphonic well before their discovery by non-African explorers of the Baka, Aka, Efe, and other foragers of the Central African forests, in the 1200s, which is at least 200 years before polyphony developed in Europe. Note the multiple lines of singers and dancers. The motifs are independent, with theme and variation interweaving. This type of music is thought to be the first expression of polyphony in world music.

Culture

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Umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior, institutions, and norms found in human societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals in these groups.

Umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior, institutions, and norms found in human societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, customs, capabilities, and habits of the individuals in these groups.

Pygmy music has been polyphonic well before their discovery by non-African explorers of the Baka, Aka, Efe, and other foragers of the Central African forests, in the 1200s, which is at least 200 years before polyphony developed in Europe. Note the multiple lines of singers and dancers. The motifs are independent, with theme and variation interweaving. This type of music is thought to be the first expression of polyphony in world music.
The Beatles exemplified changing cultural dynamics, not only in music, but fashion and lifestyle. Over a half century after their emergence, they continue to have a worldwide cultural impact.
A 19th-century engraving showing Australian natives opposing the arrival of Captain James Cook in 1770
An Assyrian child wearing traditional clothing.
Full-length profile portrait of a Turkmen woman, standing on a carpet at the entrance to a yurt, dressed in traditional clothing and jewelry
Johann Herder called attention to national cultures.
Adolf Bastian developed a universal model of culture.
British poet and critic Matthew Arnold viewed "culture" as the cultivation of the humanist ideal.
British anthropologist Edward Tylor was one of the first English-speaking scholars to use the term culture in an inclusive and universal sense.
Petroglyphs in modern-day Gobustan, Azerbaijan, dating back to 10,000 BCE and indicating a thriving culture
An example of folkloric dancing in Colombia.
Nowruz is a good sample of popular and folklore culture that is celebrated by people in more than 22 countries with different nations and religions, at the 1st day of spring. It has been celebrated by diverse communities for over 7,000 years
The Metropolitan Museum of Art in Manhattan. Visual art is one expression of culture.
Cognitive tools suggest a way for people from certain culture to deal with real-life problems, like Suanpan for Chinese to perform mathematical calculation
A fact finding mission by Blue Shield International in Egypt during the 2011 revolution to protect the cultural assets there.

Culture is considered a central concept in anthropology, encompassing the range of phenomena that are transmitted through social learning in human societies.

Early censuses and surveys provided demographic data.

Social science

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One of the branches of science, devoted to the study of societies and the relationships among individuals within those societies.

One of the branches of science, devoted to the study of societies and the relationships among individuals within those societies.

Early censuses and surveys provided demographic data.
Buyers bargain for good prices while sellers put forth their best front in Chichicastenango Market, Guatemala.
A depiction of world's oldest university, the University of Bologna, in Italy
Map of the Earth
A trial at a criminal court, the Old Bailey in London
Ferdinand de Saussure, recognized as the father of modern linguistics
Aristotle asserted that man is a political animal in his Politics.
Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt was the founder of experimental psychology.
Émile Durkheim is considered one of the founding fathers of sociology.

In addition to sociology, it now encompasses a wide array of academic disciplines, including anthropology, archaeology, economics, human geography, linguistics, management science, communication science, political science and psychology.

Izmir Ethnography Museum (İzmir Etnografya Müzesi), Izmir, Turkey, from the courtyard

Ethnography

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Izmir Ethnography Museum (İzmir Etnografya Müzesi), Izmir, Turkey, from the courtyard
Ethnography museum, Budapest, Hungary
Bronisław Malinowski among Trobriand tribe
Part of the ethnographic collection of the Međimurje County Museum in Croatia

Ethnography (from Greek ἔθνος ethnos "folk, people, nation" and γράφω grapho "I write") is a branch of anthropology and the systematic study of individual cultures.

American Anthropological Association

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The American Anthropological Association (AAA) is an organization of scholars and practitioners in the field of anthropology.

Johann Friedrich Blumenbach

Biological anthropology

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Scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their extinct hominin ancestors, and related non-human primates, particularly from an evolutionary perspective.

Scientific discipline concerned with the biological and behavioral aspects of human beings, their extinct hominin ancestors, and related non-human primates, particularly from an evolutionary perspective.

Johann Friedrich Blumenbach
Franz Boas

This subfield of anthropology systematically studies human beings from a biological perspective.

Two archaeologists analyzing artifacts of Strawberry Valley unincorporated community and Forest City ghost town

Archaeology

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Scientific study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.

Scientific study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture.

Two archaeologists analyzing artifacts of Strawberry Valley unincorporated community and Forest City ghost town
Archaeologists excavating in Rome
An early photograph of Stonehenge taken July 1877
Artifacts discovered at the 1808 Bush Barrow excavation by Sir Richard Colt Hoare and William Cunnington.
Archaeological excavation of a Stone Age settlement at Glamilders in Långbergsöda village, Saltvik, Åland, in 1906.
Mortimer Wheeler pioneered systematic excavation in the early 20th century. Pictured, are his excavations at Maiden Castle, Dorset, in October 1937.
Cast of the skull of the Taung child, uncovered in South Africa. The Child was an infant of the Australopithecus africanus species, an early form of hominin
Monte Albán archaeological site
Inverted kite aerial photo of an excavation of a Roman building at Nesley near Tetbury in Gloucestershire.
Excavations at the 3800-year-old Edgewater Park Site, Iowa
Archaeological excavation that discovered prehistoric caves in Vill (Innsbruck), Austria
An archaeologist sifting for POW remains on Wake Island.
Five of the seven known fossil teeth of Homo luzonensis found in Callao Cave, the Philippines.
Karl von Habsburg, on a Blue Shield International fact-finding mission in Libya
Extensive excavations at Beit She'an, Israel
Permanent exhibition in a German multi-storey car park, explaining the archaeological discoveries made during the construction of this building
Excavations at the site of Gran Dolina, in the Atapuerca Mountains, Spain, 2008
A looter's pit on the morning following its excavation, taken at Rontoy, Huaura Valley, Peru in June 2007. Several small holes left by looters' prospecting probes can be seen, as well as their footprints.

In Europe it is often viewed as either a discipline in its own right or a sub-field of other disciplines, while in North America archaeology is a sub-field of anthropology.