Anti-Catholicism

anti-Catholicanti-papistAnti-Poperypopishanti-Catholic sentimentanti-Catholicspersecution of CatholicsPoperydiscredit the Catholic ChurchAnti-Catholic activist
Anti-Catholicism is hostility towards Catholics or opposition to the Catholic Church, its clergy and its adherents.wikipedia
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Romanism

RomanistRomanistsRome
At various points after the Reformation, some majority Protestant states, including England, Prussia, and Scotland made anti-Catholicism and opposition to the Pope and Catholic rituals major political themes, and the anti-Catholic sentiment which resulted from it frequently lead to religious discrimination against Catholic individuals (often derogatorily referred to in Anglophone Protestant countries as "papists" or "Romanists").
Romanism was a derogatory term for Roman Catholicism in the past when anti-Catholicism was more common in the United States and the United Kingdom.

Historicist interpretations of the Book of Revelation

AntichristPope as AntichristPope with the Antichrist
Protestant Reformers, including John Wycliffe, Martin Luther, Henry VIII, John Calvin, Thomas Cranmer, John Thomas, John Knox, Roger Williams, Cotton Mather, and John Wesley, as well as most Protestants of the 16th-19th centuries, identified the Papacy with the Antichrist.
The Centuriators of Magdeburg, a group of Lutheran scholars in Magdeburg headed by Matthias Flacius, wrote the 12-volume Magdeburg Centuries to discredit the Catholic Church and lead other Christians to recognize the Pope as the Antichrist.

Popish Plot

plotconspiracy to install a Catholic kingFive Popish Lords
The fictitious "Popish Plot" involving Titus Oates was a hoax that many Protestants believed to be true, exacerbating Anglican-Catholic relations.
The fictitious Popish Plot must be understood against the background of the English Reformation and the subsequent development of a strong anti-Catholic sentiment among the mostly Protestant population of England.

Nativism (politics)

nativistnativismnativists
In majority Protestant countries with large scale immigration, such as the United States and Australia, suspicion of Catholic immigrants or discrimination against them often overlapped or was conflated with nativism, xenophobia, and ethnocentric or racist sentiments (i.e. anti-Italianism, anti-Irish sentiment, Hispanophobia, anti-Quebec sentiment, anti-Polish sentiment).
This form of nationalism is often identified with xenophobia and anti-Catholic sentiment (anti-Papism).

Know Nothing

American PartyAmericanKnow-Nothing
The nativist movement found expression in a national political movement called the "American" or Know-Nothing Party of 1854-56.
It was primarily anti-Catholic, xenophobic, and hostile to immigration, starting originally as a secret society.

Hispanophobia

anti-HispanicAnti-Spanish sentimentanti-Hispanic sentiment
In majority Protestant countries with large scale immigration, such as the United States and Australia, suspicion of Catholic immigrants or discrimination against them often overlapped or was conflated with nativism, xenophobia, and ethnocentric or racist sentiments (i.e. anti-Italianism, anti-Irish sentiment, Hispanophobia, anti-Quebec sentiment, anti-Polish sentiment).

Papist

poperypopishPapists
At various points after the Reformation, some majority Protestant states, including England, Prussia, and Scotland made anti-Catholicism and opposition to the Pope and Catholic rituals major political themes, and the anti-Catholic sentiment which resulted from it frequently lead to religious discrimination against Catholic individuals (often derogatorily referred to in Anglophone Protestant countries as "papists" or "Romanists").

Philadelphia nativist riots

Nativist RiotsPhiladelphiaPhiladelphia Anti-Catholic Riots
The resulting "nativist" movement, which achieved prominence in the 1840s, was whipped into a frenzy of anti-Catholicism that led to mob violence, most notably the Philadelphia Nativist Riot of 1844.
The riots were a result of rising anti-Catholic sentiment at the growing population of Irish Catholic immigrants.

Cristero War

CristeroCristerosCristero Rebellion
Similar attacks on the Church occurred in Mexico and Portugal since their 1910 revolutions and in Spain during the twentieth century. Mexican President Plutarco Elías Calles's enforcement of previous anti-Catholic legislation denying priests' rights, enacted as the Calles Law, prompted the Mexican Episcopate to suspend all Catholic worship in Mexico from August 1, 1926 and sparked the bloody Cristero War of 1926–1929 in which some 50,000 peasants took up arms against the government.
state atheism, anti-Catholic and anti-clerical articles of the 1917 Constitution of Mexico.

The New Anti-Catholicism

The New Anti-Catholicism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice
The New Anti-Catholicism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice (Oxford University Press, New ed.
The New Anti-Catholicism: The Last Acceptable Prejudice is a book written by Philip Jenkins, Distinguished Professor of History and Religious studies at Pennsylvania State University, dealing with contemporary anti-Catholic bigotry, particularly in the United States.

Reformation

Protestant Reformationthe ReformationProtestant
At various points after the Reformation, some majority Protestant states, including England, Prussia, and Scotland made anti-Catholicism and opposition to the Pope and Catholic rituals major political themes, and the anti-Catholic sentiment which resulted from it frequently lead to religious discrimination against Catholic individuals (often derogatorily referred to in Anglophone Protestant countries as "papists" or "Romanists").

Pope Leo XIII

Leo XIIIGioacchino PecciPope
Pius IX died in 1878 and was replaced by more conciliatory Pope Leo XIII who negotiated away most of the anti-Catholic laws beginning in 1880.
Under Otto von Bismarck, the anti-Catholic Kulturkampf in Prussia led to significant restrictions on the Catholic Church in Imperial Germany, including the Jesuits Law of 1872.

Catholic emancipation

emancipationCatholic Emancipation ActAct of Emancipation
The Catholic emancipation issue became a major crisis.
The dechristianization of France in 1790–1801, the anti-Catholic Kulturkampf in Germany in the 1870s and the progress of Jewish emancipation present interesting comparisons of toleration at the European level.

Anti-Irish sentiment

anti-Irishanti-Irish prejudiceHibernophobia
In majority Protestant countries with large scale immigration, such as the United States and Australia, suspicion of Catholic immigrants or discrimination against them often overlapped or was conflated with nativism, xenophobia, and ethnocentric or racist sentiments (i.e. anti-Italianism, anti-Irish sentiment, Hispanophobia, anti-Quebec sentiment, anti-Polish sentiment).

Red Terror (Spain)

Red TerrorSpainRed
Similar attacks on the Church occurred in Mexico and Portugal since their 1910 revolutions and in Spain during the twentieth century.
Historian Vicente Carcel Orti asserts that anticlerical Freemasons played a large part in the anti-Catholic acts of the government since they held key government positions, including at least 183 deputies in the Cortes Generales (the Spanish parliament) and so they were instrumental in the making of anti-Catholic laws.

Protestantism

ProtestantProtestantsProtestant church
At various points after the Reformation, some majority Protestant states, including England, Prussia, and Scotland made anti-Catholicism and opposition to the Pope and Catholic rituals major political themes, and the anti-Catholic sentiment which resulted from it frequently lead to religious discrimination against Catholic individuals (often derogatorily referred to in Anglophone Protestant countries as "papists" or "Romanists"). Protestant Reformers, including John Wycliffe, Martin Luther, Henry VIII, John Calvin, Thomas Cranmer, John Thomas, John Knox, Roger Williams, Cotton Mather, and John Wesley, as well as most Protestants of the 16th-19th centuries, identified the Papacy with the Antichrist.

English Reformation

Reformationbreak with RomePre-Reformation
Institutional anti-Catholicism in Britain and Ireland began with the English Reformation under Henry VIII.

Orange Order

Orange LodgeOrangemenOrangeman
Many belonged to the Orange Order, an anti-Catholic organization with chapters across Canada that was most powerful during the late 19th century.

Louis André

general Andrénewly installed minister for war
In the Affaire Des Fiches, in France in 1904–1905, it was discovered that the militantly anticlerical War Minister under Combes, General Louis André, was determining promotions based on the French Masonic Grand Orient's huge card index on public officials, detailing which were Catholic and who attended Mass, with the goal of preventing their promotions.
Loyal to the laïque Third Republic, he was anti-Catholic, militantly anticlerical, a Freemason and was implicated in the Affaire Des Fiches, a scandal in which he received reports from Masonic groups on which army officers were practicing Catholics for the purpose of denying their promotions.

Nazism

NaziNazisNational Socialism
Nazi ideology desired the subordination of the Church to the State and could not accept an autonomous establishment, whose legitimacy did not spring from the government.
During his youth in Austria, Hitler was politically influenced by Austrian Pan-Germanist proponent Georg Ritter von Schönerer, who advocated radical German nationalism, antisemitism, anti-Catholicism, anti-Slavic sentiment and anti-Habsburg views.

Mortara case

Edgardo MortaraMortara AffairEdgardo Mine
Anti-Catholicism among American Jews further intensified in the 1850s during the international controversy over the Edgardo Mortara case, when a baptized Jewish boy in the Papal States was removed from his family and refused to return to them.
The case—an anti-Catholic "publicist's dream", to quote Kertzer—had by now become a massive controversy in both Europe and the United States, with voices across the social spectrum clamouring for the Pope to return Edgardo to his parents.

Persecution of Christians

persecutionanti-Christianpersecuted
While older sectarian divides declined, commentators have observed a re-emergence of anti-Catholicism in Australia in recent decades amid rising secularism and broader anti-Christian movements.

La Violencia

ColombiaThe Violencecivil and political crisis
Anti-Catholic and anti-clerical sentiments, some spurred by an anti-clerical conspiracy theory which was circulating in Colombia during the mid-twentieth century led to persecution of Catholics and killings, most specifically of the clergy, during the events known as La Violencia.
Some propaganda leaflets circulating in Medellín blamed a favorite of anti-Catholic conspiracy theorists, the Society of Jesus (Jesuits), for the murder of Gaitán.

Puritans

PuritanPuritanismpuritanical
These positions were brought to New England by English colonists who were predominantly Puritans.
Anti-Catholic sentiment appeared in New England with the first Pilgrim and Puritan settlers.

Plutarco Elías Calles

Plutarco CallesPlutarco Elias CallesCalles
Mexican President Plutarco Elías Calles's enforcement of previous anti-Catholic legislation denying priests' rights, enacted as the Calles Law, prompted the Mexican Episcopate to suspend all Catholic worship in Mexico from August 1, 1926 and sparked the bloody Cristero War of 1926–1929 in which some 50,000 peasants took up arms against the government.
Calles's anti-Catholic actions included outlawing religious orders, depriving the Church of property rights and depriving the clergy of civil liberties, including their right to trial by jury (in cases involving anti-clerical laws) and the right to vote.