Anti-Müllerian hormone

AMH bound to its type II receptor, AMHR2 (PDB: 7L0J)

Glycoprotein hormone structurally related to inhibin and activin from the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, whose key roles are in growth differentiation and folliculogenesis.

- Anti-Müllerian hormone

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Activin and inhibin

Activin and inhibin are two closely related protein complexes that have almost directly opposite biological effects.

The Activin dimer, from 2ARV.pdb
Schematic diagram of the 1D structures of inhibin and activin. The black line between the monomers represents a disulfide bond.

Activin, inhibin and a number of other structurally related proteins such as anti-Müllerian hormone, bone morphogenetic protein, and growth differentiation factor belong to the TGF-β protein superfamily.

Sertoli cell

A "nurse" cell of the testicles that is part of a seminiferous tubule and helps in the process of spermatogenesis, the production of sperm.

Germinal epithelium of the testicle.
1: basal lamina
2: spermatogonia
3: spermatocyte 1st order
4: spermatocyte 2nd order
5: spermatid
6: mature spermatid
7: Sertoli cell
8: tight junction (blood testis barrier)
section of a tubule of the testis of a rat. X 250.

anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) — secreted during the early stages of fetal life.

SOX9

Protein that in humans is encoded by the SOX9 gene.

A representation of the 3D structure of the protein myoglobin showing turquoise α-helices. This protein was the first to have its structure solved by X-ray crystallography. Toward the right-center among the coils, a prosthetic group called a heme group (shown in gray) with a bound oxygen molecule (red).

It is expressed by proliferating but not hypertrophic chondrocytes that is essential for differentiation of precursor cells into chondrocytes and, with steroidogenic factor 1, regulates transcription of the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) gene.

Cryptorchidism

Absence of one or both testes from the scrotum.

Cryptorchidism on scrotal ultrasound
Scrotal ultrasonography of undescended testis: (a) Normal testis in the scrotum (b) Atrophic and decreased echogenicity of the contralateral testis of the same patient seen in the inguinal region
Inguinal cryptorchidism in a Chihuahua
A retained testicle with cancer removed during necropsy of a dog
Genitals of a 42-year-old man with cryptorchidism. The empty scrotum is clearly visible. The two bumps, that are above penis in pubic zone can be seen too, these are the testicles in the inguinal canal

During the third to fifth months, the cells in the testes differentiate into testosterone-producing Leydig cells, and anti-Müllerian hormone-producing Sertoli cells.

Uterus

For other uses of "Womb", see Womb (disambiguation).

Image showing different structures around and relating to the human uterus
Different regions of Uterus displayed & labelled using a 3D medical animation still shot
Diagram showing regions of the uterus
Uterus covered by the broad ligament
Schematic diagram of uterine arterial vasculature seen as a cross-section through the myometrium and endometrium
Vessels of the uterus and its appendages, rear view
Transvaginal ultrasonography showing a uterine fluid accumulation in a postmenopausal woman.
Vertical section of mucous membrane of human uterus
Schematic frontal view of female anatomy
Sectional plan of the gravid uterus in the third and fourth month
Fetus in utero, between fifth and sixth months.
Female pelvis and its contents, seen from above and in front
The arteries of the internal organs of generation of the female, seen from behind
Median sagittal section of female pelvis
(Description located on [[:File:Illu female pelvis.jpg|image page]])
Uterus

In males, anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) secreted from the testes leads to the ducts' regression.

Paramesonephric duct

Paramesonephric ducts (or Müllerian ducts) are paired ducts of the embryo that run down the lateral sides of the urogenital ridge and terminate at the sinus tubercle in the primitive urogenital sinus.

Urogenital sinus of female human embryo of eight and a half to nine weeks old.

The sex based differences in the contributions of the paramesonephric ducts to reproductive organs is based on the presence, and degree of presence, of Müllerian inhibiting factor.

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age.

A polycystic ovary
Transvaginal ultrasound scan of polycystic ovary
Polycystic ovary as seen on sonography

There is some evidence that exposure to higher than typical levels of androgens and the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in utero increases the risk of developing PCOS in later life.

In vitro fertilisation

Process of fertilisation where an egg is combined with sperm in vitro ("in glass").

Illustrated schematic of IVF with single-sperm injection (ICSI)
A triple-line endometrium is associated with better IVF outcomes.
A depiction of the procedure of in-vitro fertilisation.
Demonstration of IVF
Normal Vaginal Canal Vs Menopause
Schematic illustration of artificial insemination.

Anti-Müllerian hormone levels, with higher levels indicating higher chances of pregnancy, as well as of live birth after IVF, even after adjusting for age.

TGF beta signaling pathway

Involved in many cellular processes in both the adult organism and the developing embryo including cell growth, cell differentiation, cell migration, apoptosis, cellular homeostasis and other cellular functions.

TGF Beta ligand binds to receptor
Type II receptor recruits type I receptor and phosphorylates
Type I receptor phosphorylates R-SMAD
R-SMAD binds coSMAD
R-SMAD-coSMAD complex enters nucleus

The TGF beta superfamily of ligands includes: Bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs), Growth and differentiation factors (GDFs), Anti-müllerian hormone (AMH), Activin, Nodal and TGFβs.

Primary ovarian insufficiency

Partial or total loss of reproductive and hormonal function of the ovaries before age 40 because of folliclular (egg producing area) dysfunction or early loss of eggs.

The ovaries form part of the female reproductive system, and attach to the fallopian tubes

(Since the serum Anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) level is correlated with the number of remaining primordial follicles some researchers believe the above two phenotypes can be distinguished by measuring serum AMH levels.