Anti-Müllerian hormone

AMH bound to its type II receptor, AMHR2 (PDB: 7L0J)

Glycoprotein hormone structurally related to inhibin and activin from the transforming growth factor beta superfamily, whose key roles are in growth differentiation and folliculogenesis.

- Anti-Müllerian hormone
AMH bound to its type II receptor, AMHR2 (PDB: 7L0J)

20 related topics

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Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome has an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance.

Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome

Presence of Müllerian duct derivatives (fallopian tubes, uterus, and/or the upper part of the vagina) in what would be considered a genetically and otherwise physically normal male animal by typical human based standards.

Presence of Müllerian duct derivatives (fallopian tubes, uterus, and/or the upper part of the vagina) in what would be considered a genetically and otherwise physically normal male animal by typical human based standards.

Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome has an autosomal recessive pattern of inheritance.

This condition is usually caused by deficiency of fetal anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) effect due to mutations of the gene for AMH or the anti-Müllerian hormone receptor, but may also be as a result of insensitivity to AMH of the target organ.

Cryptorchidism on scrotal ultrasound

Cryptorchidism

Absence of one or both testes from the scrotum.

Absence of one or both testes from the scrotum.

Cryptorchidism on scrotal ultrasound
Scrotal ultrasonography of undescended testis: (a) Normal testis in the scrotum (b) Atrophic and decreased echogenicity of the contralateral testis of the same patient seen in the inguinal region
Inguinal cryptorchidism in a Chihuahua
A retained testicle with cancer removed during necropsy of a dog
Genitals of a 42-year-old man with cryptorchidism. The empty scrotum is clearly visible. The two bumps, that are above penis in pubic zone can be seen too, these are the testicles in the inguinal canal

During the third to fifth months, the cells in the testes differentiate into testosterone-producing Leydig cells, and anti-Müllerian hormone-producing Sertoli cells.

Germinal epithelium of the testicle.
1: basal lamina
2: spermatogonia
3: spermatocyte 1st order
4: spermatocyte 2nd order
5: spermatid
6: mature spermatid
7: Sertoli cell
8: tight junction (blood testis barrier)

Sertoli cell

A "nurse" cell of the testicles that is part of a seminiferous tubule and helps in the process of spermatogenesis, the production of sperm.

A "nurse" cell of the testicles that is part of a seminiferous tubule and helps in the process of spermatogenesis, the production of sperm.

Germinal epithelium of the testicle.
1: basal lamina
2: spermatogonia
3: spermatocyte 1st order
4: spermatocyte 2nd order
5: spermatid
6: mature spermatid
7: Sertoli cell
8: tight junction (blood testis barrier)
section of a tubule of the testis of a rat. X 250.

anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) — secreted during the early stages of fetal life.

Urogenital sinus of female human embryo of eight and a half to nine weeks old.

Paramesonephric duct

Paramesonephric ducts (or Müllerian ducts) are paired ducts of the embryo that run down the lateral sides of the urogenital ridge and terminate at the sinus tubercle in the primitive urogenital sinus.

Paramesonephric ducts (or Müllerian ducts) are paired ducts of the embryo that run down the lateral sides of the urogenital ridge and terminate at the sinus tubercle in the primitive urogenital sinus.

Urogenital sinus of female human embryo of eight and a half to nine weeks old.

The sex based differences in the contributions of the paramesonephric ducts to reproductive organs is based on the presence, and degree of presence, of Müllerian inhibiting factor.

A representation of the 3D structure of the protein myoglobin showing turquoise α-helices. This protein was the first to have its structure solved by X-ray crystallography. Toward the right-center among the coils, a prosthetic group called a heme group (shown in gray) with a bound oxygen molecule (red).

SOX9

Protein that in humans is encoded by the SOX9 gene.

Protein that in humans is encoded by the SOX9 gene.

A representation of the 3D structure of the protein myoglobin showing turquoise α-helices. This protein was the first to have its structure solved by X-ray crystallography. Toward the right-center among the coils, a prosthetic group called a heme group (shown in gray) with a bound oxygen molecule (red).

It is expressed by proliferating but not hypertrophic chondrocytes that is essential for differentiation of precursor cells into chondrocytes and, with steroidogenic factor 1, regulates transcription of the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) gene.

Image showing different structures around and relating to the human uterus

Uterus

For other uses of "Womb", see Womb (disambiguation).

For other uses of "Womb", see Womb (disambiguation).

Image showing different structures around and relating to the human uterus
Different regions of Uterus displayed & labelled using a 3D medical animation still shot
Diagram showing regions of the uterus
Uterus covered by the broad ligament
Schematic diagram of uterine arterial vasculature seen as a cross-section through the myometrium and endometrium
Vessels of the uterus and its appendages, rear view
Transvaginal ultrasonography showing a uterine fluid accumulation in a postmenopausal woman.
Vertical section of mucous membrane of human uterus
Schematic frontal view of female anatomy
Sectional plan of the gravid uterus in the third and fourth month
Fetus in utero, between fifth and sixth months.
Female pelvis and its contents, seen from above and in front
The arteries of the internal organs of generation of the female, seen from behind
Median sagittal section of female pelvis
(Description located on [[:File:Illu female pelvis.jpg|image page]])
Uterus

In males, anti-müllerian hormone (AMH) secreted from the testes leads to the ducts' regression.

A polycystic ovary

Polycystic ovary syndrome

Most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age.

Most common endocrine disorder in women of reproductive age.

A polycystic ovary
Transvaginal ultrasound scan of polycystic ovary
Polycystic ovary as seen on sonography

There is some evidence that exposure to higher than typical levels of androgens and the anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) in utero increases the risk of developing PCOS in later life.

Illustrated schematic of IVF with single-sperm injection (ICSI)

In vitro fertilisation

Process of fertilisation where an egg is combined with sperm in vitro ("in glass").

Process of fertilisation where an egg is combined with sperm in vitro ("in glass").

Illustrated schematic of IVF with single-sperm injection (ICSI)
A triple-line endometrium is associated with better IVF outcomes.
A depiction of the procedure of in-vitro fertilisation.
Demonstration of IVF
Normal Vaginal Canal Vs Menopause
Schematic illustration of artificial insemination.

Anti-Müllerian hormone levels, with higher levels indicating higher chances of pregnancy, as well as of live birth after IVF, even after adjusting for age.

Diagram showing the reduction in number of the chromosomes in the process of maturation of the ovum; the process is known as meiosis.

Anovulation

When the ovaries do not release an oocyte during a menstrual cycle.

When the ovaries do not release an oocyte during a menstrual cycle.

Diagram showing the reduction in number of the chromosomes in the process of maturation of the ovum; the process is known as meiosis.

If the differential is broad, hormone serum levels of estradiol, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), anti-mullerian hormone (AMH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), and prolactin can be diagnostic since most causes of anovulation are hormonal imbalances.

Nomogram for the starting dosage of FSH preparation as estimated from age, antral follicle count (AFC) and endogenous serum FSH taken day 3 of the menstrual cycle. An example is given in the nomogram, wherein an age of 32 years and an AFC of 12 gives a point on the middle line that, when continued to an FSH of 5 IU/l, results in a starting FSH dosage of almost 200 IU/l.

Controlled ovarian hyperstimulation

Technique used in assisted reproduction involving the use of fertility medications to induce ovulation by multiple ovarian follicles.

Technique used in assisted reproduction involving the use of fertility medications to induce ovulation by multiple ovarian follicles.

Nomogram for the starting dosage of FSH preparation as estimated from age, antral follicle count (AFC) and endogenous serum FSH taken day 3 of the menstrual cycle. An example is given in the nomogram, wherein an age of 32 years and an AFC of 12 gives a point on the middle line that, when continued to an FSH of 5 IU/l, results in a starting FSH dosage of almost 200 IU/l.
Nomogram for the starting dosage of FSH as estimated from age, anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) and endogenous serum FSH taken day 3 of the menstrual cycle (same as previous nomogram but with AMH instead of AFC).

Circulating anti-Müllerian hormone (AMH) can predict excessive and poor response to ovarian stimulation. According to NICE guidelines of in vitro fertilization, an anti-Müllerian hormone level of less than or equal to 5.4 pmol/l (0.8 ng/mL) predicts a low response to ovarian hyperstimulation, while a level greater than or equal to 25.0 pmol/l (3.6 ng/mL) predicts a high response. For predicting an excessive response, AMH has a sensitivity and specificity of 82% and 76%, respectively. Overall it may be superior to AFC and basal FSH. Tailoring the dosage of gonadotrophin administration to AMH level has been shown to reduce the incidence of excessive response and cancelled cycles.