Anti-aircraft warfare

anti-aircraftanti-aircraft gunair defenseAA gunflakanti-aircraft gunsantiaircraftAAanti-aircraft artilleryair defence
Anti-aircraft warfare or counter-air defence is defined by NATO as "all measures designed to nullify or reduce the effectiveness of hostile air action".wikipedia
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RIM-174 Standard ERAM

SM-6Standard Missile 6Standard Missile 6 (SM-6)
Examples are the Raytheon Standard Missile 2, Raytheon Standard Missile 6, or the MBDA Aster Missile.
It was designed for extended range anti-air warfare (ER-AAW) purposes providing capability against fixed and rotary-wing aircraft, unmanned aerial vehicles, anti-ship cruise missiles in flight, both over sea and land, and terminal ballistic missile defense.

Spelling alphabet

phonetic alphabetradio alphabetSpelling alphabets
Nicknames for anti-aircraft guns include AA, AAA or triple-A, an abbreviation of anti-aircraft artillery; "ack-ack" (from the spelling alphabet used by the British for voice transmission of "AA"); and archie (a World War I British term probably coined by Amyas Borton, and believed to derive via the Royal Flying Corps, from the music-hall comedian George Robey's line "Archibald, certainly not!"
Recorded in the 1898 "Signalling Instruction" issued by the War Office and followed by the 1904 Signalling Regulations this system differentiated only the letters most frequently misunderstood: Ack (originally "Ak") Beer (or Bar) C D E F G H I J K L eMma N O Pip Q R eSses Toc U Vic W X Y Z. This alphabet was the origin of phrases such as "ack-ack" (A.A. for anti-aircraft), "pip-emma" for pm and Toc H for an ex-servicemen association.

Air Defense Artillery Branch

Air Defense ArtilleryArmy Air Defense Command PostAir Defense Artillery Branch (United States)
At the other extreme the United States Army has an Air Defense Artillery Branch that provided ground-based air defence for both homeland and the army in the field, however it is operationally under the Joint Force Air Component Commander.
The Air Defense Artillery branch is the branch of the United States Army that specializes in anti-aircraft weapons (such as surface to air missiles).

World War I

First World WarGreat WarWorld War One
After the First World War it was sometimes prefixed by 'Light' or 'Heavy' (LAA or HAA) to classify a type of gun or unit.
The campaign saw the very first use of medical evacuation by the Serbian army in autumn of 1915 and anti-aircraft warfare in the spring of 1915 after an Austrian plane was shot down with ground-to-air fire.

Short range air defense

SHORADVSHORADshort-range air defense
SHORAD missile batteries often deploy across an area with individual launchers several kilometres apart.
Short Range Air Defense (SHORAD) is a group of anti-aircraft weapons and tactics that have to do with defense against low-altitude air threats, primarily helicopters and low-flying close air support aircraft such as the A-10 or Sukhoi Su-25.

United States Air Force

U.S. Air ForceAir ForceUSAF
In the later decades of the Cold War this included the United States Air Force's operating bases in UK.
Defensive Counter air (DCA) is defined as "all the defensive measures designed to detect, identify, intercept, and destroy or negate enemy forces attempting to penetrate or attack through friendly airspace" (JP 1-02).

Amyas Borton

A E BortonAmyas Eden BortonA. E. Borton
Nicknames for anti-aircraft guns include AA, AAA or triple-A, an abbreviation of anti-aircraft artillery; "ack-ack" (from the spelling alphabet used by the British for voice transmission of "AA"); and archie (a World War I British term probably coined by Amyas Borton, and believed to derive via the Royal Flying Corps, from the music-hall comedian George Robey's line "Archibald, certainly not!"
It is recognized that while serving on the Western Front, Borton invented the slang term "archie" for anti-aircraft fire.

3"/23 caliber gun

3 in3 in/233-inch (76 mm) guns
The first US anti-aircraft cannon was a 1-pounder concept design by Admiral Twining in 1911 to meet the perceived threat of airships, that eventually was used as the basis for the US Navy's first operational anti-aircraft cannon: the 3"/23 caliber gun.
The 3"/23 caliber gun (spoken "three-inch-twenty-three-caliber") was the standard anti-aircraft gun for United States destroyers through World War I and the 1920s. United States naval gun terminology indicates the gun fired a projectile 3 inches (76 mm) in diameter, and the barrel was 23 calibers long (barrel length is 3" x 23 = 69" or 1.75 meters.)

Barrage balloon

balloon barragebarrage balloonsbarrage-balloon
They include surface based, subsurface (submarine launched), and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
Balloons were intended to defend against dive bombers flying at heights up to 5,000 feet (1,500 m), forcing them to fly higher and into the range of concentrated anti-aircraft fire—anti-aircraft guns could not traverse fast enough to attack aircraft flying at low altitude and high speed.

Surface-to-air missile

SAMsurface-to-air missilessurface-to-air
They include surface based, subsurface (submarine launched), and air-based weapon systems, associated sensor systems, command and control arrangements and passive measures (e.g. barrage balloons).
It is one type of antiaircraft system; in modern armed forces, missiles have replaced most other forms of dedicated antiaircraft weapons, with anti-aircraft guns pushed into specialized roles.

QF 1-pounder pom-pom

1-pounder1-pounder gun1-pounder (37 mm) guns
Britain's Royal Navy would soon introduce the QF 3-inch and QF 4-inch AA guns and also had Vickers 1-pounder quick firing "pom-pom"s that could be used in various mountings.
In World War I, it was used in Europe as an anti-aircraft gun as the Maxim Flak M14.

QF 13-pounder 6 cwt AA gun

QF 13 pounder 6 cwt AA gun13-pdr QF 6 cwt Mk III13-pounder 6 cwt anti-aircraft gun
The British Army adopted the 13-pounder quickly producing new mountings suitable for AA use, the 13-pdr QF 6 cwt Mk III was issued in 1915.
The Ordnance QF 13 pounder Mk III anti-aircraft gun, also known as 13 pounder 6 cwt, was an early British improvisation in World War I to adapt the 13 pounder field gun to anti-aircraft use.

QF 3.7-inch AA gun

3.7-inchQF 3.7 inch AA gun3.7-inch guns
Production of the QF 3.7-inch (94 mm) began in 1937; this gun was used on mobile carriages with the field army and transportable guns on fixed mountings for static positions.
The QF 3.7-inch AA was Britain's primary heavy anti-aircraft gun during World War II.

Kerrison Predictor

Kerrison DirectorM-5 antiaircraft gun directorNo 3 LAA Predictor
The Predictor AA No 3, as the Kerrison Predictor was officially known, was introduced with it.
The Kerrison Predictor was one of the first fully automated anti-aircraft fire-control systems.

Flaming onion

The German Army also adapted a revolving cannon that came to be known to Allied fliers as the "flaming onion" from the shells in flight.
The flaming onion was a 37 mm Hotchkiss revolving-barrel anti-aircraft gun used by the German army at the beginning of World War I, the name referring to both the gun, and especially the flare or tracer ammunition it fired.

Acoustic location

echolocationsound locatoracoustic source localization
From the early 1930s eight countries developed radar; these developments were sufficiently advanced by the late 1930s for development work on sound-locating acoustic devices to be generally halted, although equipment was retained.
As a military air defense tool, passive acoustic location was used from mid-World War I to the early years of World War II to detect enemy aircraft by picking up the noise of their engines.

QF 2-pounder naval gun

2-pounderQF 2-pounder Mark VIIIQF 2 pdr Mk.II "pom-pom" (40 mm L/39)
The following year they decided to adopt the Bofors 40 mm and a twin barrel Vickers 2-pdr (40 mm) on a modified naval mount.
The 2-pounder gun, officially designated the QF 2-pounder (QF denoting "quick firing") and universally known as the pom-pom, was a 40 mm British autocannon, used as an anti-aircraft gun by the Royal Navy.

37 mm automatic air defense gun M1939 (61-K)

37 mm 70-K61-KM1939
The Soviet Union also used a 37 mm, the 37 mm M1939, which appears to have been copied from the Bofors 40 mm.
The 37 mm automatic air defense gun M1939 (61-K) (37-мм автоматическая зенитная пушка образца 1939 года (61-К)) is a Soviet 37 mm calibre anti-aircraft gun developed during the late 1930s and used during World War II.

25 mm automatic air defense gun M1940 (72-K)

25mm 72-K72-K25 mm
A Bofors 25 mm, essentially a scaled down 40 mm, was also copied as the 25 mm M1939.
25 mm automatic air defense gun M1940 (72-K) (25-мм автоматическая зенитная пушка образца 1940 года (72-К)) was a Soviet 25 mm caliber anti-aircraft gun used during the Great Patriotic War.

Royal Observer Corps

Observer CorpsNo 17 Group Royal Observer Corps North WalesROC
Furthermore, in Britain the volunteer Observer Corps formed in 1925 provided a network of observation posts to report hostile aircraft flying over Britain.
Initially these posts were manned by British Army personnel, who were in turn replaced by Special (Police) Constables, and posts were coordinated on an area basis with telephone communications provided between themselves and their associated anti-aircraft defences.

Bofors 40 mm gun

40 mmBofors 40 mm40 mm Bofors
The following year they decided to adopt the Bofors 40 mm and a twin barrel Vickers 2-pdr (40 mm) on a modified naval mount.
The Bofors 40 mm gun, often referred to simply as the Bofors gun, is an anti-aircraft autocannon designed in the 1930s by the Swedish arms manufacturer AB Bofors.

Radoje Ljutovac

During the bombing raid, private Radoje Ljutovac fired his cannon at the enemy aircraft and successfully shot one down.
Private Radoje Ljutovac fought in the First World War in the Serbian Army, and is officially credited with the first shooting down of a military aircraft with Ground-to-Air artillery fire.

Battle of Britain

Britainair battle with GermanyBattle of Britain Day
Significant AA warfare started with the Battle of Britain in the summer of 1940.
Historian Stephen Bungay cited Germany's failure to destroy Britain's air defences to force an armistice (or even outright surrender) as the first major German defeat in World War II and a crucial turning point in the conflict.

Radar

radar stationradarsradar system
The system used a centralised control system including both search and targeting radar, which calculated the aim point for the guns after considering windage and ballistics, and then sent electrical commands to the guns, which used hydraulics to point themselves at high speeds.
The term radar has since entered English and other languages as a common noun, losing all capitalization.The following derivation was also suggested during RAF RADAR courses in 1954/5: at Yatesbury Training Camp: Radio Azimuth Direction And Ranging:.The modern uses of radar are highly diverse, including air and terrestrial traffic control, radar astronomy, air-defense systems, antimissile systems, marine radars to locate landmarks and other ships, aircraft anticollision systems, ocean surveillance systems, outer space surveillance and rendezvous systems, meteorological precipitation monitoring, altimetry and flight control systems, guided missile target locating systems, and ground-penetrating radar for geological observations.

90 mm Gun M1/M2/M3

90 mm gun90 mm guns90 mm dual-purpose guns
Their larger 90 mm M3 gun would prove, as did the eighty-eight, to make an excellent anti-tank gun as well, and was widely used late in the war in this role.
The 90–mm Gun M1/M2/M3 is an American heavy anti-aircraft and anti-tank gun, playing a role similar to the German 8.8cm Flak 18.