Anti-dsDNA antibodies

Anti-dsDNAAnti ds-DNAanti-double stranded DNAanti-ssDNA antibody.dsDNA
Anti-double stranded DNA (Anti-dsDNA) antibodies are a group of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) the target antigen of which is double stranded DNA.wikipedia
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Anti-nuclear antibody

anti-nuclear antibodiesANAantinuclear antibodies
Anti-double stranded DNA (Anti-dsDNA) antibodies are a group of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) the target antigen of which is double stranded DNA.
There are many subtypes of ANAs such as anti-Ro antibodies, anti-La antibodies, anti-Sm antibodies, anti-nRNP antibodies, anti-Scl-70 antibodies, anti-dsDNA antibodies, anti-histone antibodies, antibodies to nuclear pore complexes, anti-centromere antibodies and anti-sp100 antibodies.

Lupus nephritis

systemic lupus erythematosus
They are highly diagnostic of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and are implicated in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis.
Clinically, haematuria and proteinuria are present, frequently with nephrotic syndrome, hypertension, hypocomplementemia, elevated anti-dsDNA titres and elevated serum creatinine.

Crithidia luciliae

C. luciliae
Crithidia luciliae is a haemoflagellate protist with an organelle known as the kinetoplast.
luciliae'' as a substrate for immunofluorescence, the organelle can be used to detect anti-dsDNA antibodies, a common feature of the disease.

Antigen

antigensantigenicantigenic proteins
Anti-double stranded DNA (Anti-dsDNA) antibodies are a group of anti-nuclear antibodies (ANA) the target antigen of which is double stranded DNA.

Systemic lupus erythematosus

lupusSLEsystemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)
They are highly diagnostic of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and are implicated in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis.

LE cell

The first evidence for antinuclear antibodies arose in 1948 when Hargraves, Richmond and Morton discovered the LE cell.

Phagocyte

phagocytesphagocytic cellsphagocytic
These abnormal cells, which are found in the bone marrow of persons who have SLE are categorised as polymorphonuclear leukocytes with phagocytosed whole nuclei.

Immune response

immune responsesimmunological responseimmune
Although the exact mechanism of the generation of dsDNA antibodies is still unknown, it is likely that extracellular DNA is one cause of an immune response against dsDNA.

Apoptosis

apoptoticprogrammed cell deathcell death
Apoptosis is the highly organised process of programmed cell death in which the cell degrades the nuclear DNA and signals for phagocytosis.

Fas receptor

FasCD95TNFRSF6
These include increased levels of soluble Fas and bcl-2 and polymorphisms in the programmed cell death 1 and run-related transcription factor X1.

Bcl-2

BCL2B-cell lymphoma 2proto-oncogene proteins c-bcl-2
These include increased levels of soluble Fas and bcl-2 and polymorphisms in the programmed cell death 1 and run-related transcription factor X1.

Programmed cell death protein 1

PD-1programmed cell death 1CD279
These include increased levels of soluble Fas and bcl-2 and polymorphisms in the programmed cell death 1 and run-related transcription factor X1.

RUNX1

AML1acute myeloid leukemia 1AML-1
These include increased levels of soluble Fas and bcl-2 and polymorphisms in the programmed cell death 1 and run-related transcription factor X1.

Bleb (cell biology)

blebbingblebblebs
Blebs on apoptotic cells contain nearly all the autoantigens found in SLE, and phagocytes bind these apoptotic cells and phagocytose them.

Serum amyloid P component

serum amyloid PSAPamyloid P
Serum amyloid P component is a protein that is thought to aid in the clearance of chromatin produced by apoptotic cells and deficiencies in this protein have been shown (in mice) to cause spontaneous formation of ANA.

Immunogenicity

immunogenicelicit an immune responseimmune response
Autoantigens present on the blebs of apoptotic cells are also prone to modification, which can increase their immunogenicity.

Antigen-presenting cell

antigen-presenting cellsantigen presenting cellantigen presenting cells
Upon release of nuclear proteins and chromatin, antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages, display these antigens to T helper cells.

Dendritic cell

dendritic cellsmyeloid dendritic cellsdendritic
Upon release of nuclear proteins and chromatin, antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages, display these antigens to T helper cells.

Macrophage

macrophagesM2 macrophagesTissue macrophages
Upon release of nuclear proteins and chromatin, antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages, display these antigens to T helper cells.

Interferon type I

interferon alphatype I interferoninterferon beta
Although the details of this process are still controversial, evidence shows that to produce an immune response, DNA must activate an antigen presenting cell to produce type 1 interferons.

Plasmacytoid dendritic cell

plasmacytoid dendritic cellsplasmacytoidpDC
This cytokine serves to induce maturation of plasmacytoid dendritic cells (PDCs) so that they can display their antigens to T helper cells.

Pattern recognition receptor

pattern recognition receptorspattern recognition receptors (PRRs)(PRRs)
CpG motif DNA acts via the pattern recognition receptor, toll-like receptor 9, found highly expressed in PDCs and B cells.

TLR9

toll-like receptor 9TLR 9CD289
CpG motif DNA acts via the pattern recognition receptor, toll-like receptor 9, found highly expressed in PDCs and B cells.

B cell

B cellsB-cellB lymphocytes
CpG motif DNA acts via the pattern recognition receptor, toll-like receptor 9, found highly expressed in PDCs and B cells.

T helper cell

Th1Th2T helper cells
Upon release of nuclear proteins and chromatin, antigen presenting cells, such as dendritic cells and macrophages, display these antigens to T helper cells.