Ammunition rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad in November 2005
A Russian TM-46 anti-tank blast mine.
This Cougar in Al Anbar, Iraq, was hit by a directed charge IED, approximately 90 –.
Soviet TM-35 mine at the Museum of Heroic Defense and Liberation of Sevastopol on Sapun Mountain, Sevastopol
X-ray of a suitcase showing a pipe bomb and a laptop.
German Riegel mine 43
Improvised explosive device in Iraq. The concave copper shape on top defines an explosively formed penetrator/projectile
Anti Tank Mine used by Indian Army
Artillery shells and gasoline cans discovered in the back of a pick-up truck in Iraq
Polish MPB mine.
A U.S. Marine in Iraq shown with a robot used for disposal of buried devices
How to use an American M-24 antitank mine
Israeli IDF Caterpillar D9 armored bulldozer, which is used by the IDF Combat Engineering Corps for clearing heavy belly charges and booby-trapped buildings.
Casspir Personnel Carrier
U.S. Marines with Explosive Ordnance Disposal (EOD) destroy an improvised explosive device cache in southern Afghanistan in June 2010.
RG-31 Mine Protected Armored Personnel Carrier (MP APC) in service with the US Army in Iraq in 2006
A Stryker lies on its side following a buried IED blast in Iraq. (2007)
Oil-drum roadside IED removed from culvert in 1984
Wheelbarrow counter-IED robot on streets of Northern Ireland in 1978
Captured IEDs from a cache left behind by the Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant, Syria, 26 January 2019

This self forging projectile principle has been used for some French and Soviet off route mines and has earned infamy as an improvised explosive devices (IED) technique in Israel and especially Iraq.

- Anti-tank mine

Among those supplies were many types of anti-tank mines.

- Improvised explosive device
Ammunition rigged for an IED discovered by Iraqi police in Baghdad in November 2005

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Overall

Examples of anti-personnel mines. Center: Valmara 69 (a bounding mine); right: VS-50

Land mine

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Explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.

Explosive device concealed under or on the ground and designed to destroy or disable enemy targets, ranging from combatants to vehicles and tanks, as they pass over or near it.

Examples of anti-personnel mines. Center: Valmara 69 (a bounding mine); right: VS-50
Swedish FFV 028 anti-tank-mines of the German Bundeswehr (inert versions)
Roman caltrop
Illustration of the "self-tripped trespass land mine" from the Huolongjing
'Underground sky soaring thunder', land mines connected to weapons above ground, from the Wubei Zhi
Cutaway diagram of the S-mine
The Schu-mine 42, the most common mine used in the Second World War
Claymore mine with firing device and electric blasting cap assembly
An L9 Bar Mine
Section of an anti-tank mine. Note the yellow main charge wrapped around a red booster charge, and the secondary fuze well on the side of the mine designed for an anti-handling device
Diagram of components
Examples of anti-handling devices
Anti personnel mine in Cambodia
A U.S. Army Explosive Ordnance Disposal technician removing the fuze from a Russian-made mine to clear a minefield outside of Fallujah, Iraq
Argentine minefield at Port William, Falkland Islands created in 1982; clearance inhibited by boggy terrain
Minefield warning on the Golan Heights, still valid more than 40 years after creation of the field by the Syrian army
School posters in Karabakh educating children on mines and UXO
British Royal Engineers practice mine clearance
Party states to the Ottawa Treaty (in blue)
Bomb disposal Advanced Bomb Suit

Overlapping both categories is the improvised explosive device (IED), which is "a device placed or fabricated in an improvised manner incorporating explosive material, destructive, lethal, noxious, incendiary, pyrotechnic materials or chemicals designed to destroy, disfigure, distract or harass. They may incorporate military stores, but are normally devised from non-military components."

Anti-tank mines were created not long after the invention of the tank in the First World War.

South Korean soldiers searching for land mines in Iraq

Demining

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Process of removing land mines from an area.

Process of removing land mines from an area.

South Korean soldiers searching for land mines in Iraq
A US soldier clears a mine using a grappling hook during training
PROM-1 bounding landmine. Normally it is buried so only the prongs are visible.
British Army sappers clearing a beach front in Normandy (1944)
Naval minesweeper as a monument in Kotka, Finland
Foerster Minex 2FD 4.500 metal detector used by the French army
Mine detection dog in training (Bagram Airfield, Afghanistan)
Ukrainian sapper with a landmine finder dog Patron after battle during the 2022 Russian invasion
APOPO HeroRAT getting food reward
Genetically modified thale cress turns brown in the presence of nitrous oxide.
PNNL engineer testing a timed neutron detector
Protective equipment including helmet, visor and body armor with throat protection
U.S. Army M1 Abrams tank with mine plow
An amphibious assault vehicle fires a line charge to clear beachhead during an exercise at the Camp Lejeune Marine Corps Base.
World War II M4 Sherman tank fitted with a flail
Hydrema mine clearing vehicles use flails.<ref>{{cite web|last1=Pike|first1=John|title=Hydrema 910 Mine Clearing Vehicle|url=https://www.globalsecurity.org/military/systems/ground/hydrema.htm|website=GlobalSecurity.org|access-date=28 March 2019}}</ref>
The Casspir, a steel, armor-bodied V-hulled vehicle de-mining Bagram Air Base
IDF Caterpillar D9 uses a standard blade or a special mineplow.

Land mines overlap with other categories of explosive devices, including unexploded ordnance (UXOs), booby traps and improvised explosive devices (IEDs).

There are two main categories of land mine: anti-tank and anti-personnel.

Formation of an EFP warhead. USAF Research Laboratory.

Explosively formed penetrator

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Explosively formed projectile, a self-forging warhead, or a self-forging fragment, is a special type of shaped charge designed to penetrate armor effectively.

Explosively formed projectile, a self-forging warhead, or a self-forging fragment, is a special type of shaped charge designed to penetrate armor effectively.

Formation of an EFP warhead. USAF Research Laboratory.
Formation of an EFP
MPB mine showing the face of its explosively formed penetrator
Improvised Explosive Device in Iraq. When activated, the concave copper shape on top becomes an explosively formed penetrator.

EFPs have been used in improvised explosive devices against armoured cars, for example in the 1989 assassination of the German banker Alfred Herrhausen (attributed to the Red Army Faction), and by Hezbollah in the 1990s.

The effects of traditional explosions like blast-forces and metal fragments seldom disable armored vehicles, but the explosively formed solid copper penetrator is quite lethal—even to the new generation of mine-resistant vehicles (which are made to withstand an anti-tank mine), and many tanks.