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Transgender hormone therapy (male-to-female)

feminizing hormone therapyhormone replacement therapyhormone therapy
Antiandrogens are also used as a component of feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women and as puberty blockers in transgender girls.
The medications used for the MTF therapy include estrogens, antiandrogens, progestogens, and gonadotropin-releasing hormone modulators (GnRH modulators).

Steroidal antiandrogen

AR antagonists can be further divided into steroidal antiandrogens and nonsteroidal antiandrogens; androgen synthesis inhibitors can be further divided mostly into CYP17A1 inhibitors and 5α-reductase inhibitors; and antigonadotropins can be further divided into gonadotropin-releasing hormone modulators (GnRH modulators), progestogens, and estrogens.
A steroidal antiandrogen (SAA) is an antiandrogen with a steroidal chemical structure.

Nonsteroidal antiandrogen

second-generationsecond-generation NSAAfirst-generation
AR antagonists can be further divided into steroidal antiandrogens and nonsteroidal antiandrogens; androgen synthesis inhibitors can be further divided mostly into CYP17A1 inhibitors and 5α-reductase inhibitors; and antigonadotropins can be further divided into gonadotropin-releasing hormone modulators (GnRH modulators), progestogens, and estrogens.
A nonsteroidal antiandrogen (NSAA) is an antiandrogen with a nonsteroidal chemical structure.

Hirsutism

increased hair growthhirsuteexcessive hair growth
In women, antiandrogens are used to treat acne, seborrhea, excessive hair growth, scalp hair loss, and high androgen levels, such as those that occur in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Treatments may include birth control pills that contain estrogen and progestin, antiandrogens, or insulin sensitizers.

Polycystic ovary syndrome

PCOSPolycystic Ovarian Syndromepolycystic ovaries
In women, antiandrogens are used to treat acne, seborrhea, excessive hair growth, scalp hair loss, and high androgen levels, such as those that occur in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Metformin and anti-androgens may also help.

Antiestrogen

anti-estrogenantiestrogenicanti-estrogenic
Antiandrogens are one of three types of sex hormone antagonists, the others being antiestrogens and antiprogestogens.
Antiestrogens are one of three types of sex hormone antagonists, the others being antiandrogens and antiprogestogens.

Bicalutamide

Casodex
When castration is combined with a nonsteroidal antiandrogen like bicalutamide, this strategy is referred to as combined androgen blockade (also known as complete or maximal androgen blockade).
Bicalutamide, sold under the brand name Casodex among others, is an antiandrogen medication that is primarily used to treat prostate cancer.

Hyperandrogenism

hyperandrogenicandrogen excesshigh androgen levels
In women, antiandrogens are used to treat acne, seborrhea, excessive hair growth, scalp hair loss, and high androgen levels, such as those that occur in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Symptoms of hyperandrogenism can be improved with birth control pills or antiandrogens such as cyproterone acetate or spironolactone.

Hypersexuality

nymphomaniachypersexualsatyriasis
In males, antiandrogens are used in the treatment of prostate cancer, enlarged prostate, scalp hair loss, overly high sex drive, unusual and problematic sexual urges, and early puberty.
In research involving the use of antiandrogens to reduce undesirable sexual behaviour such as hypersexuality, testosterone has been found to be necessary, but not sufficient, for sexual drive.

Cyproterone acetate

AndrocurDepot cyproterone acetate
Cyproterone acetate was developed subsequently to high-dose estrogen and is the only steroidal antiandrogen that has been widely used in the treatment of prostate cancer, but it has largely been replaced by nonsteroidal antiandrogens, which are newer and have greater effectiveness, tolerability, and safety.
Cyproterone acetate (CPA), sold alone under the brand name Androcur or with ethinylestradiol under the brand names Diane or Diane-35 among others, is an antiandrogen and progestin medication which is used in the treatment of androgen-dependent conditions like acne, excessive hair growth, early puberty, and prostate cancer, as a component of feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women, and in birth control pills.

Gynecomastia

Gynaecomastiabreast enlargementbreast development
In any case, common side effects of antiandrogens in men include breast tenderness, breast enlargement, feminization, hot flashes, sexual dysfunction, infertility, and osteoporosis.
The insecticide phenothrin possesses antiandrogen activity and has been associated with gynecomastia.

Chlormadinone acetate

Chlormadinone
The antiandrogens chlormadinone acetate and oxendolone and the functional antiandrogens allylestrenol and gestonorone caproate are also approved in some countries for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Chlormadinone acetate (CMA), sold under the brand names Belara, Lutéran, and Prostal among others, is a progestin and antiandrogen medication which is used in birth control pills to prevent pregnancy, as a component of menopausal hormone therapy, in the treatment of gynecological disorders, and in the treatment of androgen-dependent conditions like enlarged prostate and prostate cancer in men and acne and hirsutism in women.

Oxendolone

Oxendolone (TSAA-291)
The antiandrogens chlormadinone acetate and oxendolone and the functional antiandrogens allylestrenol and gestonorone caproate are also approved in some countries for the treatment of benign prostatic hyperplasia.
Oxendolone, sold under the brand names Prostetin and Roxenone, is an antiandrogen and progestin medication which is used in Japan in the treatment of enlarged prostate.

Enzalutamide

MDV3100
Enzalutamide, apalutamide, and abiraterone acetate are specifically approved for use in combination with castration to treat castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Enzalutamide is an antiandrogen, and acts as an antagonist of the androgen receptor, the biological target of androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone.

Dutasteride

Avodart
Antiandrogens have only limitedly been assessed for this purpose, but the 5α-reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride and the steroidal AR antagonist spironolactone have been associated with significantly reduced risk of prostate cancer.
Dutasteride is a 5α-reductase inhibitor, and hence is a type of antiandrogen.

Topilutamide

5α-Reductase inhibitors like finasteride, dutasteride, and alfatradiol and the topical nonsteroidal AR antagonist topilutamide (fluridil) are approved for the treatment of pattern hair loss, also known as scalp hair loss or baldness.
Topilutamide, known more commonly as fluridil and sold under the brand name Eucapil, is an antiandrogen medication which is used in the treatment of pattern hair loss in men and women.

Abiraterone

abiraterone acetate
The most common methods of androgen deprivation therapy currently employed to treat prostate cancer are castration (with a GnRH modulator or orchiectomy), nonsteroidal antiandrogens, and the androgen synthesis inhibitor abiraterone acetate.
Abiraterone works by suppressing the production of androgens – specifically it inhibits CYP17A1 – and thereby decreases the production of testosterone.

Finasteride

PropeciaProscarPropecia/Proscar
Antiandrogens have only limitedly been assessed for this purpose, but the 5α-reductase inhibitors finasteride and dutasteride and the steroidal AR antagonist spironolactone have been associated with significantly reduced risk of prostate cancer.
Finasteride is a 5α-reductase inhibitor, and therefore an antiandrogen.

Sex-hormonal agent

sex hormone antagonisthormonal medicationsex hormone agonist
Antiandrogens are one of three types of sex hormone antagonists, the others being antiestrogens and antiprogestogens.
Drugs that indirectly influence sex hormone systems, such as antigonadotropins like GnRH analogues and prolactin releasers (e.g., D 2 receptor antagonists), progonadotropins like GnRH agonists, and steroidogenesis inhibitors like aromatase inhibitors and androgen synthesis inhibitors, are also sex-hormonal agents.

Androgen deprivation therapy

androgen deprivationhormone ablation therapy for prostate cancer
In accordance, therapeutic modalities that reduce androgen signaling in the prostate gland, referred to collectively as androgen deprivation therapy, are able to significantly slow the course of prostate cancer and extend life in men with the disease.
The pharmaceutical approaches include antiandrogens and chemical castration.

Seborrhoeic dermatitis

seborrheic dermatitisseborrheaseborrheic
In women, antiandrogens are used to treat acne, seborrhea, excessive hair growth, scalp hair loss, and high androgen levels, such as those that occur in polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS).
Besides antifungals, the effectiveness of anti-inflammatory drugs, which reduce inflammation, and antiandrogens, which reduce sebum production, provide further insights into the pathophysiology of seborrhoeic dermatitis.

Apalutamide

Enzalutamide, apalutamide, and abiraterone acetate are specifically approved for use in combination with castration to treat castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Apalutamide is an antiandrogen, and acts as an antagonist of the androgen receptor, the biological target of androgens like testosterone and dihydrotestosterone.

Estrogen (medication)

estrogenEstrogenicestrogen cream
AR antagonists can be further divided into steroidal antiandrogens and nonsteroidal antiandrogens; androgen synthesis inhibitors can be further divided mostly into CYP17A1 inhibitors and 5α-reductase inhibitors; and antigonadotropins can be further divided into gonadotropin-releasing hormone modulators (GnRH modulators), progestogens, and estrogens.
Estrogens are used along with antiandrogens and progestogens as a component of feminizing hormone therapy for transgender women.

Antiprogestogen

AntiprogestinPR antagonistprogesterone receptor antagonist
Antiandrogens are one of three types of sex hormone antagonists, the others being antiestrogens and antiprogestogens.
Antiprogestogens are one of three types of sex hormone antagonists, the others being antiestrogens and antiandrogens.

Androgen-dependent condition

androgen-dependentAndrogen-dependent syndromesandrogen
Antiandrogens are used to treat an assortment of androgen-dependent conditions.
Such conditions may be treated with drugs with antiandrogen actions, including androgen receptor antagonists such as cyproterone acetate, spironolactone, and bicalutamide, 5α-reductase inhibitors such as finasteride and dutasteride, CYP17A1 inhibitors such as abiraterone acetate, gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues such as leuprorelin and cetrorelix, and/or other antigonadotropins such as megestrol acetate and medroxyprogesterone acetate.