Antibody-drug conjugate

antibody-drug conjugatesADCADCsantibody drug conjugatesAntibody conjugationantibody drug conjugateantibody-drug conjugate (ADC)antibody-drug-conjugatesantibody−drug conjugatesconjugation with an anti-CD19 antibody
Antibody-drug conjugates or ADCs are a class of biopharmaceutical drugs designed as a targeted therapy for treating cancer.wikipedia
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Targeted therapy

targeted therapiestargeted cancer therapyMolecular Targeted Therapy
Antibody-drug conjugates or ADCs are a class of biopharmaceutical drugs designed as a targeted therapy for treating cancer.
However, the modalities can be combined; antibody-drug conjugates combine biologic and cytotoxic mechanisms into one targeted therapy.

Bioconjugation

bioconjugateconjugationBioconjugate chemistry
Antibody-drug conjugates are examples of bioconjugates and immunoconjugates.
Synthesis of bioconjugates involves a variety of challenges, ranging from the simple and nonspecific use of a fluorescent dye marker to the complex design of antibody drug conjugates.

Gemtuzumab ozogamicin

MylotarggemtuzumabOzogamicin
In 2001 Pfizer/Wyeth's drug Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (trade name: Mylotarg) was approved.
Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (marketed by Wyeth as Mylotarg) is an antibody drug conjugate (a drug-linked monoclonal antibody) that is used to treat acute myeloid leukemia.

Seattle Genetics

The company, headquartered in Bothell, Washington (a suburb of Seattle), is the industry leader in antibody-drug conjugates or ADCs, a technology designed to harness the targeting ability of monoclonal antibodies to deliver cell-killing agents directly to cancer cells.

Brentuximab vedotin

ADCETRISBrentuximabBrentuximab Vedotin (SGN-35)
Brentuximab vedotin (trade name: Adcetris, marketed by Seattle Genetics and Millennium/Takeda) was approved for relapsed HL and relapsed sALCL by the FDA on August 19, 2011 and received conditional marketing authorization from the European Medicines Agency in October 2012. Brentuximab vedotin includes an enzyme-sensitive cleavable linker that delivers the antimicrotubule agent monomethyl auristatin E or MMAE, a synthetic antineoplastic agent, to human-specific CD30-positive malignant cells.
Brentuximab vedotin (INN, trade name Adcetris) is an antibody-drug conjugate medication used to treat relapsed or refractory Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) and systemic anaplastic large cell lymphoma (ALCL).

Trastuzumab emtansine

Kadcylaado-trastuzumab emtansinetrastuzumab
Trastuzumab emtansine (ado-trastuzumab emtansine or T-DM1, trade name: Kadcyla, marketed by Genentech and Roche) was approved in February 2013 for the treatment of people with HER2-positive metastatic breast cancer (mBC) who had received prior treatment with trastuzumab and a taxane chemotherapy. Trastuzumab emtansine is a combination of the microtubule-formation inhibitor mertansine (DM-1) and antibody trastuzumab that employs a stable, non-cleavable linker.
Trastuzumab emtansine also known as ado-trastuzumab emtansine and sold under the trade name Kadcyla, is an antibody-drug conjugate consisting of the humanized monoclonal antibody trastuzumab (Herceptin) covalently linked to the cytotoxic agent DM1.

Immunoconjugate

immunoconjugatesAntibody-conjugatedconjugate
Antibody-drug conjugates are examples of bioconjugates and immunoconjugates.
These conjugates are used in immunotherapy and to develop monoclonal antibody therapy as a targeted form of chemotherapy when they are often known as antibody-drug conjugates.

Biopharmaceutical

biologicsbiopharmaceuticalsbiologic
Antibody-drug conjugates or ADCs are a class of biopharmaceutical drugs designed as a targeted therapy for treating cancer.

Inotuzumab ozogamicin

Besponsa
The European Commission approved Inotuzumab ozogamicin as a monotherapy for the treatment of adults with relapsed or refractory CD22-positive B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) on June 30, 2017 under the trade name Besponsa® (Pfizer/Wyeth), followed on August 17, 2017 by the FDA.
Inotuzumab ozogamicin (trade name Besponsa) is an antibody-drug conjugate used to treat relapsed or refractory B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL).

Chemotherapy

chemotherapeuticantineoplasticantineoplastic agent
Unlike chemotherapy, ADCs are intended to target and kill tumor cells while sparing healthy cells.
Antibody-drug conjugates (ADCs) comprise an antibody, drug and a linker between them.

Polatuzumab vedotin

PolivyPolatuzumab vedotin-piiq
Polatuzumab vedotin (INN; brand name Polivy; development codes DCDS4501A and RG7596) is an antibody-drug conjugate or ADC designed for the treatment of cancer.

Paul Ehrlich

EhrlichEhrlich, Paulmagic bullet
Drugs that would target tumor cells and ignore others was conceived in 1900 by German Nobel laureate Paul Ehrlich.
The concept of a "magic bullet" has to some extent been realized by the development of antibody-drug conjugates (a monoclonal antibody linked to a cytotoxic biologically active drug), as they enable cytotoxic drugs to be selectively delivered to their designated targets (e.g. cancer cells).

Mertansine

emtansineDM-1DM1
Trastuzumab emtansine is a combination of the microtubule-formation inhibitor mertansine (DM-1) and antibody trastuzumab that employs a stable, non-cleavable linker.
Mertansine, also called DM1 (and in some of its forms emtansine), is a thiol-containing maytansinoid that for therapeutic purposes is attached to a monoclonal antibody through reaction of the thiol group with a linker structure to create an antibody-drug conjugate (ADC).

Hydrazone

phenylhydrazonehydrazonesphenylhydrazones
Linkers are based on chemical motifs including disulfides, hydrazones or peptides (cleavable), or thioethers (noncleavable).
Hydrazone-based coupling methods are used in medical biotechnology to couple drugs to targeted antibodies (see ADC), e.g. antibodies against a certain type of cancer cell.

Monomethyl auristatin E

vedotin(MM Auristatin E)auristatin E
Brentuximab vedotin includes an enzyme-sensitive cleavable linker that delivers the antimicrotubule agent monomethyl auristatin E or MMAE, a synthetic antineoplastic agent, to human-specific CD30-positive malignant cells.

Antibody-oligonucleotide conjugate

Also under development are site-specific conjugation (TDCs) and novel conjugation techniques to further improve stability and therapeutic index, α emitting immunoconjugates, antibody-conjugated nanoparticles and antibody-oligonucleotide conjugates.

Antibody

antibodiesimmunoglobulinimmunoglobulins
ADCs are complex molecules composed of an antibody linked to a biologically active cytotoxic (anticancer) payload or drug.

Cytotoxicity

cytotoxiccytotoxincytotoxins
ADCs are complex molecules composed of an antibody linked to a biologically active cytotoxic (anticancer) payload or drug.

Monoclonal antibody

monoclonal antibodiesmonoclonalmAb
ADCs combine the targeting capabilities of monoclonal antibodies with the cancer-killing ability of cytotoxic drugs.

Antigen

antigensantigenicantigenic proteins
An anticancer drug is coupled to an antibody that specifically targets a certain tumor antigen (e.g. a protein that, ideally, is only to be found in or on tumor cells).

Protein

proteinsproteinaceousstructural proteins
An anticancer drug is coupled to an antibody that specifically targets a certain tumor antigen (e.g. a protein that, ideally, is only to be found in or on tumor cells).

Therapeutic index

therapeutic windowmaximum tolerated doseCertain safety factor
This targeting, limits side effects and gives a wider therapeutic window than other chemotherapeutic agents.

Pfizer

Pfizer Inc.Pfizer, Inc.Pfizer Inc
In 2001 Pfizer/Wyeth's drug Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (trade name: Mylotarg) was approved.

Wyeth

American Home ProductsWyeth PharmaceuticalsA.H. Robins
In 2001 Pfizer/Wyeth's drug Gemtuzumab ozogamicin (trade name: Mylotarg) was approved.

Food and Drug Administration

FDAU.S. Food and Drug AdministrationUnited States Food and Drug Administration
However, after a request from the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the company withdrew it in June 2010.