Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome

withdrawal syndromediscontinuation syndromeSSRI discontinuation syndromeAntidepressant withdrawal syndromeantidepressant discontinuationbrain shiversbrain zapBrain Zapsdiscontinuation symptomsSSRI/SNRI withdrawal syndrome
Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome, also called antidepressant withdrawal syndrome, is a condition that can occur following the interruption, reduction, or discontinuation of antidepressant medication.wikipedia
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Antidepressant

antidepressantsanti-depressantanti-depressants
Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome, also called antidepressant withdrawal syndrome, is a condition that can occur following the interruption, reduction, or discontinuation of antidepressant medication.
A discontinuation syndrome can occur after stopping any antidepressant which resembles recurrent depression.

Monoamine oxidase inhibitor

MAOImonoamine oxidase inhibitorsMAOIs
A discontinuation syndrome can occur after stopping any antidepressant including selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs).
Antidepressants including MAOIs have some dependence-producing effects, the most notable one being a withdrawal syndrome, which may be severe especially if MAOIs are discontinued abruptly or too rapidly.

Venlafaxine

EffexorEffexor XRVenlafaxin
Paroxetine and venlafaxine seem to be particularly difficult to discontinue, and prolonged withdrawal syndrome (post-acute-withdrawal syndrome, or PAWS) lasting over 18 months has been reported with paroxetine.
Antidepressant withdrawal syndrome may occur if stopped.

Paroxetine

PaxilSeroxatparoxetine hydrochloride
Paroxetine and venlafaxine seem to be particularly difficult to discontinue, and prolonged withdrawal syndrome (post-acute-withdrawal syndrome, or PAWS) lasting over 18 months has been reported with paroxetine.
While the rate of side effects appear similar compared to other SSRIs and SNRIs, antidepressant discontinuation syndromes may occur more often.

Citalopram

CelexaCipramilTalohexal
When discontinuing an antidepressant with a short half-life, switching to a drug with a longer half-life (e.g. fluoxetine or citalopram) and then tapering, and eventually discontinuing, from that drug can decrease the severity of symptoms.
Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome may occur when stopped.

Medication discontinuation

discontinuation
Antidepressant discontinuation syndrome, also called antidepressant withdrawal syndrome, is a condition that can occur following the interruption, reduction, or discontinuation of antidepressant medication.

Fluoxetine

ProzacProzakSarafem
When discontinuing an antidepressant with a short half-life, switching to a drug with a longer half-life (e.g. fluoxetine or citalopram) and then tapering, and eventually discontinuing, from that drug can decrease the severity of symptoms. People may also be switched to the long acting antidepressant fluoxetine which can then be gradually decreased.
If stopped suddenly, a withdrawal syndrome may occur with anxiety, dizziness, and changes in sensation.

Serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor

SNRIserotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitorSNRIs
A discontinuation syndrome can occur after stopping any antidepressant including selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs).
As with SSRIs, the abrupt discontinuation of an SNRI usually leads to withdrawal, or "discontinuation syndrome", which could include states of anxiety and other symptoms.

Duloxetine

Cymbalta
A 2009 Advisory Committee to the FDA found that online anecdotal reports of discontinuation syndrome related to duloxetine (Cymbalta) included severe symptoms and exceeded prevalence of both paroxetine (Paxil) and venlafaxine (Effexor) reports by over 250% (although acknowledged this may have been influenced by duloxetine (Cymbalta) being a much newer drug).
Antidepressant withdrawal syndrome may occur if stopped.

Post-acute-withdrawal syndrome

protracted withdrawal syndromepost acute withdrawal syndromepost-acute withdrawal syndrome
Paroxetine and venlafaxine seem to be particularly difficult to discontinue, and prolonged withdrawal syndrome (post-acute-withdrawal syndrome, or PAWS) lasting over 18 months has been reported with paroxetine.

Benzodiazepine withdrawal syndrome

benzodiazepine withdrawalwithdrawal syndromebenzodiazepine
The underlying reason for its occurrence is unclear, though the syndrome appears similar to withdrawal from other psychotropic drugs such as benzodiazepines.

Physical dependence

dependencedrug dependencyphysical
As such, some researchers advocate the term withdrawal over discontinuation, to communicate the similar physiological dependence and negative outcomes.
SSRI drugs, which have an important use as antidepressants, engender a discontinuation syndrome that manifests with physical side effects; e.g., there have been case reports of a discontinuation syndrome with venlafaxine (Effexor).

Influenza-like illness

flu-like symptomsacute respiratory infectionflu-like
The symptoms may include flu-like symptoms, trouble sleeping, nausea, poor balance, sensory changes, and anxiety.

Anxiety

anxiousnervousnessanxieties
The symptoms may include flu-like symptoms, trouble sleeping, nausea, poor balance, sensory changes, and anxiety.

Psychosis

psychoticpsychosespsychotic break
Rarely psychosis may occur.

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor

SSRIselective serotonin reuptake inhibitorsSSRIs
A discontinuation syndrome can occur after stopping any antidepressant including selective serotonin re-uptake inhibitors (SSRIs), serotonin–norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs), monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs).

Half-life

half-liveshalf lifehalf lives
The risk is greater among those who have taken the medication for longer and when the medication in question has a short half-life.

Balance (ability)

balancebalancingPostural sway
Sensory and movement disturbances have also been reported, including imbalance, tremors, vertigo, dizziness, and electric-shock-like experiences in the brain, often described by people who have them as "brain zaps".

Tremor

tremblingshakingmuscle tremor
Sensory and movement disturbances have also been reported, including imbalance, tremors, vertigo, dizziness, and electric-shock-like experiences in the brain, often described by people who have them as "brain zaps".

Vertigo

dizzinessvertiginousperipheral vertigo
Sensory and movement disturbances have also been reported, including imbalance, tremors, vertigo, dizziness, and electric-shock-like experiences in the brain, often described by people who have them as "brain zaps".

Dysphoria

dysphoricdysphoric moodagitation
Mood disturbances such as dysphoria, anxiety, or agitation are also reported, as are cognitive disturbances such as confusion and hyperarousal.

Fight-or-flight response

stress responsefight or flightfight-or-flight
Mood disturbances such as dysphoria, anxiety, or agitation are also reported, as are cognitive disturbances such as confusion and hyperarousal.

Biological half-life

elimination half-lifehalf-lifeterminal half-life
When discontinuing an antidepressant with a short half-life, switching to a drug with a longer half-life (e.g. fluoxetine or citalopram) and then tapering, and eventually discontinuing, from that drug can decrease the severity of symptoms.

Placenta

placental barrierchorioallantoic placentaafterbirth
Antidepressants, including SSRIs, can cross the placenta and have the potential to affect the fetus and newborn, including an increased chance of miscarriage, presenting a dilemma for pregnant women to decide whether to continue to take antidepressants at all, or if they do, considering if tapering and discontinuing during pregnancy could have a protective effect for the newborn.

Miscarriage

miscarriedspontaneous abortionmiscarriages
Antidepressants, including SSRIs, can cross the placenta and have the potential to affect the fetus and newborn, including an increased chance of miscarriage, presenting a dilemma for pregnant women to decide whether to continue to take antidepressants at all, or if they do, considering if tapering and discontinuing during pregnancy could have a protective effect for the newborn.