Antimicrobial resistance

antibiotic resistanceresistanceresistantantibiotic-resistantantibiotic resistantsuperbugantibiotic-resistant bacteriabacterial resistancesuperbugsdrug-resistant infection
Antimicrobial resistance (AMR or AR) is the ability of a microbe to resist the effects of medication that once could successfully treat the microbe.wikipedia
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Multiple drug resistance

multidrug resistancemultidrug-resistantmulti-drug resistant
Microbes resistant to multiple antimicrobials are called multidrug resistant (MDR).
Multiple drug resistance (MDR), multidrug resistance or multiresistance is antimicrobial resistance shown by a species of microorganism to multiple antimicrobial drugs.

Antibiotic

antibioticsantibacterialtopical antibiotic
The term antibiotic resistance (AR or ABR) is a subset of AMR, as it applies only to bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics.
Effectiveness and easy access have also led to their overuse and some bacteria have developed resistance.

Bacteria

bacteriumbacterialEubacteria
The term antibiotic resistance (AR or ABR) is a subset of AMR, as it applies only to bacteria becoming resistant to antibiotics.
In developed countries, antibiotics are used to treat bacterial infections and are also used in farming, making antibiotic resistance a growing problem.

Antibiotic misuse

overuse of antibioticantibiotic overusemisuse of antibiotics or antimicrobials
Preventive measures include only using antibiotics when needed, thereby stopping misuse of antibiotics or antimicrobials.
It is a contributing factor to the development of antibiotic resistance, including the creation of multidrug-resistant bacteria, informally called "super bugs": relatively harmless bacteria (such as staphylococcus, enterococcus and acinetobacter) can develop resistance to multiple antibiotics and cause life-threatening infections.

Counterfeit medications

counterfeit drugsCounterfeit drugcounterfeit medicines
Counterfeit medications may contain sub-therapeutic concentrations of antibiotics, designed to reduce the chance of detection, and this by definition, increases antimicrobial resistance.
Antibiotics with insufficient quantities of an active ingredient add to the problem of antibiotic resistance.

Staphylococcus aureus

S. aureusstaph infectionStaph. aureus
Penicillinase may have emerged as a defense mechanism for bacteria in their habitats, such as the case of penicillinase-rich Staphylococcus aureus, living with penicillin-producing Trichophyton; however, this may be circumstantial.
The emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains of ''S.

Penicillin

penicillinspenicillin Gpenicillin allergy
Search for a penicillinase ancestor has focused on the class of proteins that must be a priori capable of specific combination with penicillin.
They are still widely used today, though many types of bacteria have developed resistance following extensive use.

Horizontal gene transfer

lateral gene transferhorizontal transfergene transfer
In addition, bacteria carrying resistance genes have the ability to spread those genes to other species via horizontal gene transfer.
Horizontal gene transfer is the primary mechanism for the spread of antibiotic resistance in bacteria, and plays an important role in the evolution of bacteria that can degrade novel compounds such as human-created pesticides and in the evolution, maintenance, and transmission of virulence.

New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1

NDM-1New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamaseNew Delhi metallo-β-lactamase 1
Already in 2011, mapping of sewage and water supply samples in New Delhi showed widespread and uncontrolled infection as indicated by the presence of NDM-1-positive enteric bacteria (New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1).
New Delhi metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (NDM-1) is an enzyme that makes bacteria resistant to a broad range of beta-lactam antibiotics.

Evolutionary pressure

selective pressureselection pressureselection pressures
Antibiotics increase selective pressure in bacterial populations, causing vulnerable bacteria to die; this increases the percentage of resistant bacteria which continue growing.
The rapid evolution of antibiotic resistance places an enormous selective pressure on the advantageous alleles of resistance passed down to future generations.

Sanitation

sanitaryunsanitarypublic sanitation
Health care providers can minimize spread of resistant infections by use of proper sanitation and hygiene, including handwashing and disinfecting between patients, and should encourage the same of the patient, visitors, and family members.

Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

VRSAVancomycin-resistant ''S. aureusvancomycin-resistant ''Staphylococcus aureus
There are multiple national and international monitoring programs for drug-resistant threats, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MRAB).
Vancomycin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus are strains of Staphylococcus aureus that have become resistant to the glycopeptide antibiotic vancomycin.

Resistome

antibiotic resistome
The genes that confer resistance are known as the environmental resistome.
The resistome is a proposed expression by Gerard D. Wright for the collection of all the antibiotic resistance genes and their precursors in both pathogenic and non-pathogenic bacteria.

Antimicrobial stewardship

antibiotic stewardshipAntibiotic stewardship programmeantimicrobial stewardship programs
Antibiotic stewardship programmes appear useful in reducing rates of antibiotic resistance.
Antimicrobial stewardship is the systematic effort to educate and persuade prescribers of antimicrobials to follow evidence-based prescribing, in order to stem antibiotic overuse, and thus antimicrobial resistance.

Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus

vancomycin-resistant ''EnterococcusVREvancomycin-resistant enterococci
There are multiple national and international monitoring programs for drug-resistant threats, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MRAB).
Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus, or vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), are bacterial strains of the genus Enterococcus that are resistant to the antibiotic vancomycin.

Clindamycin

Cleocinclindamycin phosphateClinda-derm
Cephalosporins, and particularly quinolones and clindamycin, are more likely to produce colonisation with Clostridium difficile.
This test is necessary because some bacteria express a phenotype known as MLS B, in which susceptibility tests will indicate the bacteria are susceptible to clindamycin, but in vitro the pathogen displays inducible resistance.

List of antibiotics

antibiotic classesclassclass of antibiotics
Certain antibiotic classes result in resistance more than others.

Acinetobacter baumannii

A. baumanniiAcinetobacter baumannimultidrug-resistant ''A. baumannii
There are multiple national and international monitoring programs for drug-resistant threats, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MRAB).
A. baumannii has also been identified as an ESKAPE pathogen (Enterococcus faecium, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Enterobacter species), a group of pathogens with a high rate of antibiotic resistance that are responsible for the majority of nosocomial infections.

Clostridioides difficile (bacteria)

Clostridium difficileC. difficileClostridioides difficile
Cephalosporins, and particularly quinolones and clindamycin, are more likely to produce colonisation with Clostridium difficile.
diff'' infections may be difficult, due both to antibiotic resistance and physiological factors of the bacterium (spore formation, protective effects of the pseudomembrane).

Plasmid-mediated resistance

plasmid-borneplasmid-mediatedplasmids
The most common mechanism of horizontal gene transfer is the transferring of plasmids carrying antibiotic resistance genes between bacteria of the same or different species via conjugation.
Plasmid-mediated resistance is the transfer of antibiotic resistance genes which are carried on plasmids.

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus

MRSAmethicillin-resistant ''Staphylococcus aureusmethicillin-resistant ''S. aureus
There are multiple national and international monitoring programs for drug-resistant threats, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MRAB).
Antimicrobial resistance is genetically based; resistance is mediated by the acquisition of extrachromosomal genetic elements containing genes that confer resistance to certain antibiotics.

Beta-lactamase

β-lactamasepenicillinasecarbapenemase
There are multiple national and international monitoring programs for drug-resistant threats, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), vancomycin-resistant S. aureus (VRSA), extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL), vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE), multidrug-resistant A. baumannii (MRAB). In 1962, the presence of penicillinase was detected in dormant endospores of Bacillus licheniformis, revived from dried soil on the roots of plants, preserved since 1689 in the British Museum.
Beta-lactamases are enzymes produced by bacteria that provide multi-resistance to β-lactam antibiotics such as penicillins, cephalosporins, cephamycins, and carbapenems (ertapenem), although carbapenems are relatively resistant to beta-lactamase.

Microevolution

micro levelmicro-evolutionmicroevolutionary
Given that lifespans and production of new generations can be on a timescale of mere hours, a new (de novo) mutation in a parent cell can quickly become an inherited mutation of widespread prevalence, resulting in the microevolution of a fully resistant colony.
Typically, observable instances of evolution are examples of microevolution; for example, bacterial strains that have antibiotic resistance.

Virus

virusesviralvirion
Viruses develop antiviral resistance.
Eastern European scientists have used phage therapy as an alternative to antibiotics for some time, and interest in this approach is increasing, because of the high level of antibiotic resistance now found in some pathogenic bacteria.

Bacterial conjugation

conjugationconjugativeExconjugant
The most common mechanism of horizontal gene transfer is the transferring of plasmids carrying antibiotic resistance genes between bacteria of the same or different species via conjugation.
Benefits may include antibiotic resistance, xenobiotic tolerance or the ability to use new metabolites.