Antinomian Controversy

Free Grace Controversyreligious controversystatement of banishment from the Massachusetts Bay Colonytheological controversy
The Antinomian Controversy, also known as the Free Grace Controversy, was a religious and political conflict in the Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638.wikipedia
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Anne Hutchinson

Ann HutchinsonAnne (Marbury) HutchinsonAnne Marbury Hutchinson
The most notable Free Grace advocates, often called "Antinomians", were charismatic Anne Hutchinson, her brother-in-law Reverend John Wheelwright, and Massachusetts Bay Governor Henry Vane.
Anne Hutchinson (née Marbury; July 1591 – August 1643) was a Puritan spiritual advisor, religious reformer, and an important participant in the Antinomian Controversy which shook the infant Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638.

John Cotton (minister)

John CottonJohn Cotton (Puritan)Mr. Cotton
It pitted most of the colony's ministers and magistrates against some adherents of the Free Grace theology of Puritan minister John Cotton.
Soon after, Cotton became embroiled in the colony's Antinomian Controversy when several adherents of his "free grace" theology (most notably Anne Hutchinson) began criticizing other ministers in the colony.

Antinomianism

antinomianAntinomianslawlessness
The most notable Free Grace advocates, often called "Antinomians", were charismatic Anne Hutchinson, her brother-in-law Reverend John Wheelwright, and Massachusetts Bay Governor Henry Vane.
Examples of antinomians being confronted by the religious establishment include Martin Luther's critique of antinomianism and the Antinomian Controversy of the seventeenth-century Massachusetts Bay Colony.

John Wheelwright

Rev. John Wheelwright
The most notable Free Grace advocates, often called "Antinomians", were charismatic Anne Hutchinson, her brother-in-law Reverend John Wheelwright, and Massachusetts Bay Governor Henry Vane.
John Wheelwright (c.1592–1679), was a Puritan clergyman in England and America, noted for being banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony during the Antinomian Controversy, and for subsequently establishing the town of Exeter, New Hampshire.

Free grace theology

free graceFree Grace MovementFree Grace Protestant
It pitted most of the colony's ministers and magistrates against some adherents of the Free Grace theology of Puritan minister John Cotton.
Free Grace theology had ignited at least four major disputes: the "Free Spirit controversy" (13th century), the "Majoristic controversy" (16th century), the "Antinomian Controversy" (17th century), and the "Lordship controversy" (20th century).

Francis Marbury

Francis Merbury
Anne Hutchinson has historically been placed at the center of the controversy, a strong-minded woman who had grown up under the religious guidance of her father Francis Marbury, an Anglican clergyman and school teacher.
With two wives Marbury had 18 children, three of whom matriculated at Brasenose College, Oxford, and one of whom, Anne, became a puritan dissident in the Massachusetts Bay Colony who had a leading role in the colony's Antinomian Controversy.

Massachusetts Bay Colony

MassachusettsMassachusetts Bay CompanyMassachusetts Bay
The Antinomian Controversy, also known as the Free Grace Controversy, was a religious and political conflict in the Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638.
Minister John Wheelwright was banished in the wake of the Antinomian controversy (like Anne Hutchinson), and he moved north to found Exeter, New Hampshire.

History of New England

New England17th-century New Englandearly colonial history of New England
The events of 1636 to 1638 are regarded as crucial to an understanding of religion and society in the early colonial history of New England.
It merged with other settlements to form the Colony of Rhode Island and Providence Plantations, which became a haven for Baptists, Quakers, Jews, and others, including Anne Hutchinson who had been banished during the Antinomian Controversy.

Edward Hutchinson (mercer)

EdwardEdward Hutchinson, Sr.a sister
Mary was the daughter of Edward Hutchinson of Alford, and a sister of William Hutchinson, Anne Hutchinson's husband.
Beginning in 1634, five of his nine surviving children and his widow immigrated to New England, and all six of them were exiled from the Massachusetts Bay Colony as a result of the events of the Antinomian Controversy from 1636 to 1638.

John Wilson (Puritan minister)

John WilsonJohn Wilson (minister)Rev. John Wilson
The church already had pastor John Wilson, who was unsympathetic to Hutchinson.
He is most noted for being a minister at odds with Anne Hutchinson during the Antinomian Controversy from 1636 to 1638, and for being an attending minister during the execution of Mary Dyer in 1660.

William Coddington

Coddington
Boston continued to be represented with strong Free Grace advocates; two of its three deputies (William Aspinwall and William Coddington) continued in their previous roles, while John Coggeshall was newly elected.
Coddington was a member of the Boston church under the Reverend John Cotton, and was caught up in the events of the Antinomian Controversy from 1636 to 1638.

John Winthrop

Governor WinthropWinthropGovernor John Winthrop
During the election of May 1637, the free grace advocates suffered two major setbacks when John Winthrop defeated Vane in the gubernatorial race, and the Boston magistrates were voted out of office who had supported Hutchinson and Wheelwright.
This religious rift is commonly called the Antinomian Controversy, and it significantly divided the colony; Winthrop saw the Antinomian beliefs as a particularly unpleasant and dangerous heresy.

William Aspinwall

Boston continued to be represented with strong Free Grace advocates; two of its three deputies (William Aspinwall and William Coddington) continued in their previous roles, while John Coggeshall was newly elected.
At the time of Aspinwall was involved in the Antinomian Controversy which severely divided the Massachusetts Bay Colony from 1636 to 1638.

John Clarke (Baptist minister)

John ClarkeDr. John Clarke
Some who were not directly involved in the events also asked to be included, such as Randall Holden and physician and theologian John Clarke.
He arrived at the Massachusetts Bay Colony in 1637 during the Antinomian Controversy and decided to go to Aquidneck Island with many exiles from the conflict.

John Eliot (missionary)

John EliotApostle EliotJohn Eliot’s
With him was his colleague John Eliot who was opposed to the doctrines of Hutchinson.
From 1637 to 1638 Eliot participated in both the civil and church trials of Anne Hutchinson during the Antinomian Controversy.

Edward Hutchinson (captain)

Edward HutchinsonEdwardCaptain Edward Hutchinson
The only family members present were her oldest son Edward with his wife, her daughter Faith with her husband Thomas Savage, and her much younger sister Katharine with her husband Richard Scott.
He is noted for making peace with the authorities following his mother's banishment from Massachusetts during the Antinomian Controversy, returning to Boston, and ultimately dying in the service of the colony that had treated his family so harshly.

Hugh Peter

Hugh PetersPeters
Hugh Peter came all the way from Salem, and Thomas Weld was there from Roxbury as one of Hutchinson's accusers.
He played a significant role during the 1637 trial of Anne Hutchinson during the Antinomian Controversy, being one of the ministers wanting her banished from the colony.

Philip Sherman

Philip ShearmanPhillip Shearman
In Roxbury, Philip Sherman, Henry Bull, and Thomas Wilson were excommunicated from the church, and all three left the colony.
His first residence was in Roxbury in the Massachusetts Bay Colony where he lived for a few years, but he became interested in the teachings of the dissident ministers John Wheelwright and Anne Hutchinson, and at the conclusion of the Antinomian Controversy he was disarmed and forced to leave the colony.

Mary Dyer

William DyerMary Barret DyerMary Barrett
Hutchinson's friend Mary Dyer put her arm in Anne's and walked out with her.
Like most members of Boston's church, they soon became involved in the Antinomian Controversy, a theological crisis lasting from 1636 to 1638.

John Porter (settler)

John Porter
Several of the strongest supporters of Hutchinson and Wheelwright signed the document, having been disfranchised, disarmed, or excommunicated, including John Coggeshall, William Aspinwall, John Porter, Philip Sherman, Henry Bull, and several members of the Hutchinson family.
He joined the Roxbury church with his wife Margaret in 1633, but few other records are found of him while in the Massachusetts Bay Colony until he became involved with John Wheelwright and Anne Hutchinson during what is known as the Antinomian Controversy.

Portsmouth Compact

compactan agreement
On 7 March 1638, a group of men gathered at the home of Coddington and drafted a compact.
Among this group was Anne Hutchinson, who had been banished from Massachusetts Bay following the Antinomian Controversy there.

Thomas Shepard (minister)

Thomas ShepardThomas ShephardMr Shephard
Thomas Shepard was the minister of Newtown, later renamed Cambridge, Massachusetts, and he wrote a letter to Cotton and warned him of the strange opinions being circulated among his Boston parishioners.
From 1637 to 1638, during the Antinomian Controversy, he sat with the other colonial ministers during both the civil and church trials of Anne Hutchinson, and was a very vocal critic of hers during the latter.

Simon Bradstreet

BradstreetGovernor BradstreetGovernor Simon Bradstreet
The other magistrates representing the prosecution were Deputy Governor Thomas Dudley, John Endecott, Richard Bellingham, Israel Stoughton, Roger Harlakenden, Increase Nowell, Simon Bradstreet, and John Humphrey.
In 1637, during the Antinomian Controversy, he was one of the magistrates that sat at the trial of Anne Hutchinson, and voted for her banishment from the colony.

Thomas Dudley

110Governor DudleyGovernor Thomas Dudley
In January 1636, he took it upon himself to arbitrate in a dispute between Winthrop and magistrate Thomas Dudley, and he was elected governor of the colony in May, despite his youth and inexperience.
At the end of this colonial strife, called the Antinomian Controversy, Hutchinson was banished from the colony, and a number of her followers left the colony as a consequence.

Richard Bellingham

Governor BellinghamBellingham
The other magistrates representing the prosecution were Deputy Governor Thomas Dudley, John Endecott, Richard Bellingham, Israel Stoughton, Roger Harlakenden, Increase Nowell, Simon Bradstreet, and John Humphrey.
In 1637, during the Antinomian Controversy, he was one of the magistrates that sat during the trial of Anne Hutchinson, and voted for her to be banished from the colony.