Antisocial personality disorder

sociopathsociopathicantisocialsociopathyanti-social personality disordersociopathsantisocial personalityanti-socialantisocial behaviorASPD
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD or APD) is a personality disorder characterized by a long-term pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others.wikipedia
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Psychopathy

psychopathpsychopathicsociopath
Both have also stated that their diagnoses have been referred to, or include what is referred to, as psychopathy or sociopathy, but distinctions have been made between the conceptualizations of antisocial personality disorder and psychopathy, with many researchers arguing that psychopathy is a disorder that overlaps with, but is distinguishable from, ASPD.
The DSM and International Classification of Diseases (ICD) subsequently introduced the diagnoses of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and dissocial personality disorder (DPD) respectively, stating that these diagnoses have been referred to (or include what is referred to) as psychopathy or sociopathy.

Personality disorder

personality disorderspersonalitycluster A
Antisocial personality disorder (ASPD or APD) is a personality disorder characterized by a long-term pattern of disregard for, or violation of, the rights of others. Psychopathy is commonly defined as a personality disorder characterized partly by antisocial behavior, a diminished capacity for empathy and remorse, and poor behavioral controls.
DSM-5 lists ten specific personality disorders: paranoid, schizoid, schizotypal, antisocial, borderline, histrionic, narcissistic, avoidant, dependent and obsessive-compulsive personality disorder.

Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders

DSM-IVDSM-IV-TRDSM
Antisocial personality disorder is defined in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM).
In 1952, the APA listed homosexuality in the DSM as a sociopathic personality disturbance.

Anti-social behaviour

antisocial behavioranti-socialantisocial
These behaviors lead such individuals into frequent conflict with the law, and many people with ASPD have extensive histories of antisocial behavior and criminal infractions stemming back before adulthood. Psychopathy is commonly defined as a personality disorder characterized partly by antisocial behavior, a diminished capacity for empathy and remorse, and poor behavioral controls.
The American Psychiatric Association, in its Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, diagnoses persistent anti-social behaviour as antisocial personality disorder.

Conduct disorder

conduct disordersConduct problemsantisocial conduct disorders
Persistent antisocial behavior as well as a lack of regard for others in childhood and adolescence is known as conduct disorder and is the precursor of ASPD.
It is often seen as the precursor to antisocial personality disorder, which is per definition not diagnosed until the individual is 18 years old.

Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder

ADHDattention deficit disorderhyperactivity
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in this population, and children with the disorder may also engage in substance abuse." CD is differentiated from oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in that children with ODD do not commit aggressive or antisocial acts against other people, animals, and property, though many children diagnosed with ODD are subsequently rediagnosed with CD.
Additionally, it is classified as a disruptive behavior disorder along with oppositional defiant disorder, conduct disorder, and antisocial personality disorder.

Remorse

apologycompunctionapologetic
They may display arrogance, think lowly and negatively of others, and lack remorse for their harmful actions and have a callous attitude to those they have harmed. Psychopathy is commonly defined as a personality disorder characterized partly by antisocial behavior, a diminished capacity for empathy and remorse, and poor behavioral controls.
A person who is incapable of feeling remorse is often diagnosed with antisocial personality disorder, as characterized in the DSM IV-TR.

Testosterone

low testosterone levels due to agingmetabolismprenatal exposure to androgens
Testosterone is a hormone that plays an important role in aggressiveness in the brain.
Most studies have also found testosterone to be associated with behaviors or personality traits linked with criminality such as antisocial behavior and alcoholism.

Aggression

aggressiveaggressivenessaggressive behavior
Aggressive behaviors are associated with adjustment problems and several psychopathological symptoms such as Antisocial Personality Disorder, Borderline Personality Disorder, and Intermittent Explosive Disorder.

DSM-5

DSM-Vmental health disordersDiagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders
The DSM-5's criteria for ASPD require that the individual have conduct problems evident by the age of 15.

Anders Behring Breivik

Anders BreivikBreivikAnders Brievik
The first team diagnosed Breivik with paranoid schizophrenia but after this initial finding was criticized, a second evaluation concluded that he was not psychotic during the attacks but did have narcissistic personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder.

Psychopathy Checklist

Hare Psychopathy ChecklistPCL-Rdiagnosed
Psychopathic traits are assessed using various measurement tools, including Canadian researcher Robert D. Hare's Psychopathy Checklist, Revised (PCL-R).
PCL-R Factors 2a and 2b are particularly strongly correlated to antisocial personality disorder and borderline personality disorder and are associated with reactive anger, criminality, and impulsive violence.

Robert D. Hare

Robert HareWithout Conscience: The Disturbing World of the Psychopaths Among Us
Psychopathic traits are assessed using various measurement tools, including Canadian researcher Robert D. Hare's Psychopathy Checklist, Revised (PCL-R). Robert D. Hare has suggested that the rise in ASPD that has been reported in the United States may be linked to changes in cultural mores, the latter serving to validate the behavioral tendencies of many individuals with ASPD.
He has also regarded the DSM-IV diagnosis of Antisocial Personality Disorder as separate to his concept of psychopathy, as it did not list the same underlying personality traits.

Oppositional defiant disorder

oppositional defiance disorderODDoppositional-defiant disorder
Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is common in this population, and children with the disorder may also engage in substance abuse." CD is differentiated from oppositional defiant disorder (ODD) in that children with ODD do not commit aggressive or antisocial acts against other people, animals, and property, though many children diagnosed with ODD are subsequently rediagnosed with CD.

Callous and unemotional traits

callouscallousnesscallous, unemotional interpersonal style
Children with the disorder often display impulsive and aggressive behavior, may be callous and deceitful, and may repeatedly engage in petty crime such as stealing or vandalism or get into fights with other children and adults.

Hervey M. Cleckley

Hervey CleckleyCleckley
American psychiatrist Hervey Cleckley's work on psychopathy formed the basis of the diagnostic criteria for ASPD, and the DSM states ASPD is often referred to as psychopathy.
The concept of psychopathy continues to be influential through forming parts of the diagnosis of antisocial personality disorder, the Psychopathy Checklist, and public perception.

Cave of septum pellucidum

cavum septi pellucidibrain damage
Cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) is a marker for limbic neural maldevelopment, and its presence has been loosely associated with certain mental disorders, such as schizophrenia and post-traumatic stress disorder.
CSP has been loosely associated with schizophrenia, post-traumatic stress disorder, traumatic brain injury, as well as with antisocial personality disorder.

Histrionic personality disorder

histrionichistrionic personalityhistrionics
Another theory suggests a possible relationship between histrionic personality disorder and antisocial personality disorder.

Empathy

empathicempathempathetic
Psychopathy is commonly defined as a personality disorder characterized partly by antisocial behavior, a diminished capacity for empathy and remorse, and poor behavioral controls.
The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) and International Classification of Diseases (ICD) list antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and dissocial personality disorder, stating that these have been referred to or include what is referred to as psychopathy.

Impulsivity

impulsiveimpulsivenessimpulsive behavior
Impulsivity is both a facet of personality and a major component of various disorders, including ADHD, substance use disorders, bipolar disorder, antisocial personality disorder, and borderline personality disorder.

Narcissistic personality disorder

megalomanianarcissisticmegalomaniac
In that vein, NPD also might be comorbid with the occurrence of other mental disorders, such as histrionic personality disorder, borderline personality disorder, antisocial personality disorder, or paranoid personality disorder.

Schizoid personality disorder

schizoidschizoid personalitySchizoids
Another study evaluating personality disorder profiles in substance abusers found that substance abusers who showed schizoid symptoms were more likely to abuse one substance rather than many, in contrast to other personality disorders such as borderline, antisocial or histrionic, which were more likely to abuse many.

Cluster B personality disorders

Cluster Bdramatichistrionic, narcissistic, or antisocial personality disorder
Antisocial personality disorder falls under the dramatic/erratic cluster of personality disorders, "Cluster B".

Eric Harris and Dylan Klebold

Eric HarrisDylan KleboldTrenchcoat Mafia
Immelman's profile believes the materials suggested behavior patterns consistent with a "malignant narcissism ... pathological narcissistic personality disorder with borderline and antisocial features, along with some paranoid traits, and unconstrained aggression".