Antisthenes (Ἀντισθένης; c. 445c. 365 BC) was a Greek philosopher and a pupil of Socrates.
365 BC) was a Greek philosopher and a pupil of Socrates. Antisthenes first learned rhetoric under Gorgias before becoming an ardent disciple of Socrates.
Other sources include the contemporaneous Antisthenes, Aristippus, and Aeschines of Sphettos.
Later writers regarded him as the founder of Cynic philosophy.
The first philosopher to outline these themes was Antisthenes, who had been a pupil of Socrates in the late 5th century BC. He was followed by Diogenes, who lived in a tub on the streets of Athens.
Gorgias of LeontiniGorgianicparadoxologia
Antisthenes first learned rhetoric under Gorgias before becoming an ardent disciple of Socrates. His favourite style seems to have been dialogues, some of them being vehement attacks on his contemporaries, as on Alcibiades in the second of his two works entitled Cyrus, on Gorgias in his Archelaus and on Plato in his Satho.
(Other students are named in later traditions; the Suda adds Pericles, Polus, and Alcidamas, Diogenes Laërtius mentions Antisthenes, and according to Philostratus, "I understand that he attracted the attention of the most admired men, Critias and Alcibiades who were young, and Thucydides and Pericles who were already old. Agathon too, the tragic poet, whom Comedy regards as wise and eloquent, often Gorgianizes in his iambic verse").
ancient Greek philosophyGreek philosopherGreek
365 BC) was a Greek philosopher and a pupil of Socrates.
Antisthenes founded the school that would come to be known as Cynicism and accused Plato of distorting Socrates' teachings.
DiogenesDiogenes of SinopeDiogene
There are many later tales about the infamous Cynic Diogenes of Sinope dogging Antisthenes' footsteps and becoming his faithful hound, but it is similarly uncertain that the two men ever met.
There are many tales about his dogging Antisthenes' footsteps and becoming his "faithful hound".
Some scholars, drawing on the discovery of defaced coins from Sinope dating from the period 350–340 BC, believe that Diogenes only moved to Athens after the death of Antisthenes, and it has been argued that the stories linking Antisthenes to Diogenes were invented by the Stoics in a later period in order to provide a succession linking Socrates to Zeno, via Antisthenes, Diogenes, and Crates.
Zeno's ideas developed from those of the Cynics, whose founding father, Antisthenes, had been a disciple of Socrates.
ancient philosophyclassical philosophyAncient
AlcibiadehistSiege of Chalcedon
His favourite style seems to have been dialogues, some of them being vehement attacks on his contemporaries, as on Alcibiades in the second of his two works entitled Cyrus, on Gorgias in his Archelaus and on Plato in his Satho.
He also appears as a character in several Socratic dialogues (Symposium, Protagoras, Alcibiades I and II, as well as the eponymous dialogues by Aeschines Socraticus and Antisthenes).
Although Eudokia Makrembolitissa supposedly tells us that he died at the age of 70, he was apparently still alive in 366 BC, and he must have been nearer to 80 years old when he died at Athens, c. 365 BC. He is said to have lectured at the Cynosarges, a gymnasium for the use of Athenians born of foreign mothers, near the temple of Heracles.
The Cynosarges was also where the Cynic Antisthenes was said to have lectured, a fact which was offered as one explanation as to how the sect got the name of Cynics.
sense and referencesensereferent
The Greek philosopher Antisthenes, a pupil of Socrates, apparently distinguished "a general object that can be aligned with the meaning of the utterance” from “a particular object of extensional reference."
Westerntimeline of the Greek history of thoughtwestern philosophers
The Cynics were an ascetic sect of philosophers beginning with Antisthenes in the 4th century BC and continuing until the 5th century AD. They believed that one should live a life of Virtue in agreement with Nature.
Janello, MartinJoyA happy society
Antisthenes (c. 445 – c. 365 BCE), often regarded as the founder of Cynicism, advocated an ascetic life lived in accordance with virtue.
Numerous ancient Greek philosophers, including Xenophanes of Colophon and Antisthenes believed in a similar polytheistic monism that came close to monotheism, but fell short.
AeschinesAeschines of SphettosAeschines the Socratic
(Some modern scholars believe that Xenophon's writings are inspired almost entirely by Plato's and/or by the influence of other Socratics such as Antisthenes and Hermogenes.
There are also four sources extant in fragmentary states: Aeschines, Antisthenes, Euclid of Megara, and Phaedo of Elis.
List of Greek PhilosophersPhilosophers of ancient Greece
performance artperformance artistperformance
In an episode of In Our Time broadcast on Thu, 20 Oct 2005, 21:30 on BBC Radio 4, Angie Hobbs, Lecturer in Philosophy, University of Warwick; Miriam Griffin, Fellow of Somerville College, Oxford; and John Moles, Professor of Latin, University of Newcastle discussed with Melvyn Bragg the idea that Antisthenes and Diogenes in ancient Greece practiced a form of performance art and that they acquired the epithet of cynic which means "dog" due to Diogenes behaving repeatedly like a dog in his performances.
XanthippeSocrates' wife XantippePatience of Socrates
It is only in Xenophon's Symposium where we have Socrates agree that she is (in Antisthenes' words) "the hardest to get along with of all the women there are."