Antisthenes

Antisthenes (Ἀντισθένης; c. 445c. 365 BC) was a Greek philosopher and a pupil of Socrates.wikipedia
96 Related Articles

Socrates

SocraticSokratesSocrate
365 BC) was a Greek philosopher and a pupil of Socrates. Antisthenes first learned rhetoric under Gorgias before becoming an ardent disciple of Socrates. In his youth he fought at Tanagra (426 BC), and was a disciple first of Gorgias, and then of Socrates; so eager was he to hear the words of Socrates that he used to walk daily from Peiraeus to Athens, and persuaded his friends to accompany him.
Other sources include the contemporaneous Antisthenes, Aristippus, and Aeschines of Sphettos.

Cynicism (philosophy)

CynicCynicsCynicism
Later writers regarded him as the founder of Cynic philosophy.
The first philosopher to outline these themes was Antisthenes, who had been a pupil of Socrates in the late 5th century BC. He was followed by Diogenes, who lived in a pot on the streets of Athens.

Gorgias

GorgianicGorgias of Leontiniparadoxologia
Antisthenes first learned rhetoric under Gorgias before becoming an ardent disciple of Socrates. His favourite style seems to have been dialogues, some of them being vehement attacks on his contemporaries, as on Alcibiades in the second of his two works entitled Cyrus, on Gorgias in his Archelaus and on Plato in his Satho. In his youth he fought at Tanagra (426 BC), and was a disciple first of Gorgias, and then of Socrates; so eager was he to hear the words of Socrates that he used to walk daily from Peiraeus to Athens, and persuaded his friends to accompany him.
(Other students are named in later traditions; the Suda adds Pericles, Polus, and Alcidamas, Diogenes Laërtius mentions Antisthenes, and according to Philostratus, "I understand that he attracted the attention of the most admired men, Critias and Alcibiades who were young, and Thucydides and Pericles who were already old. Agathon too, the tragic poet, whom Comedy regards as wise and eloquent, often Gorgianizes in his iambic verse").

Ancient Greek philosophy

Greek philosopherGreekGreek philosophers
365 BC) was a Greek philosopher and a pupil of Socrates.
Antisthenes founded the school that would come to be known as Cynicism and accused Plato of distorting Socrates' teachings.

Diogenes

Diogenes of SinopeDiogeneDiogenes the Cynic
There are many later tales about the infamous Cynic Diogenes of Sinope dogging Antisthenes' footsteps and becoming his faithful hound, but it is similarly uncertain that the two men ever met.
There are many tales about his dogging Antisthenes' footsteps and becoming his "faithful hound".

Alcibiades

AlcibiadeAlkibiadeshist
His favourite style seems to have been dialogues, some of them being vehement attacks on his contemporaries, as on Alcibiades in the second of his two works entitled Cyrus, on Gorgias in his Archelaus and on Plato in his Satho.
He also appears as a character in several Socratic dialogues (Symposium, Protagoras, Alcibiades I and II, as well as the eponymous dialogues by Aeschines Socraticus and Antisthenes).

Cynosarges

Although Eudokia Makrembolitissa supposedly tells us that he died at the age of 70, he was apparently still alive in 366 BC, and he must have been nearer to 80 years old when he died at Athens, c. 365 BC. He is said to have lectured at the Cynosarges, a gymnasium for the use of Athenians born of foreign mothers, near the temple of Heracles.
The Cynosarges was also where the Cynic Antisthenes was said to have lectured, a fact which was offered as one explanation as to how the sect got the name of Cynics.

Ancient philosophy

classical philosophyAncientclassical
Antisthenes (445 – 360 BCE)

Stoicism

StoicStoicsStoic philosopher
Some scholars, drawing on the discovery of defaced coins from Sinope dating from the period 350–340 BC, believe that Diogenes only moved to Athens after the death of Antisthenes, and it has been argued that the stories linking Antisthenes to Diogenes were invented by the Stoics in a later period in order to provide a succession linking Socrates to Zeno, via Antisthenes, Diogenes, and Crates.
Zeno's ideas developed from those of the Cynics, whose founding father, Antisthenes, had been a disciple of Socrates.

Sense and reference

senseFregean sensesreferent
The Greek philosopher Antisthenes, a pupil of Socrates, apparently distinguished "a general object that can be aligned with the meaning of the utterance” from “a particular object of extensional reference."

Rhetoric

rhetoricianrhetoricalrhetor
Antisthenes first learned rhetoric under Gorgias before becoming an ardent disciple of Socrates.

Virtue

virtuesvirtuouspurity
He adopted and developed the ethical side of Socrates' teachings, advocating an ascetic life lived in accordance with virtue. Antisthenes was a pupil of Socrates, from whom he imbibed the fundamental ethical precept that virtue, not pleasure, is the end of existence.

Athens

AthenianAtheniansAthens, Greece
Antisthenes was born c. 445 BC and was the son of Antisthenes, an Athenian.

Thracians

Thracianancient ThraceThrace
His mother was a Thracian.

Battle of Tanagra (426 BC)

Battle of TanagraSecond Battle of TanagraTanagra
In his youth he fought at Tanagra (426 BC), and was a disciple first of Gorgias, and then of Socrates; so eager was he to hear the words of Socrates that he used to walk daily from Peiraeus to Athens, and persuaded his friends to accompany him.

Battle of Leuctra

Leuctraannihilated Spartan supremacy at LeuctraFirst Spartan Revolt against the Boeotian League
He survived the Battle of Leuctra (371 BC), as he is reported to have compared the victory of the Thebans to a set of schoolboys beating their master.

Thebes, Greece

ThebesThebanThebans
He survived the Battle of Leuctra (371 BC), as he is reported to have compared the victory of the Thebans to a set of schoolboys beating their master.

Eudokia Makrembolitissa

CollectionEudociaEudokia
Although Eudokia Makrembolitissa supposedly tells us that he died at the age of 70, he was apparently still alive in 366 BC, and he must have been nearer to 80 years old when he died at Athens, c. 365 BC. He is said to have lectured at the Cynosarges, a gymnasium for the use of Athenians born of foreign mothers, near the temple of Heracles.

Heracles

HerculesHeraklesAlcides
Although Eudokia Makrembolitissa supposedly tells us that he died at the age of 70, he was apparently still alive in 366 BC, and he must have been nearer to 80 years old when he died at Athens, c. 365 BC. He is said to have lectured at the Cynosarges, a gymnasium for the use of Athenians born of foreign mothers, near the temple of Heracles.

Diogenes Laërtius

Diogenes LaertiusDiogenesDiog. Laërtius
Diogenes Laërtius says that his works filled ten volumes, but of these, only fragments remain.

Plato

dialoguesPlato's dialoguesPlatonic dialogue
His favourite style seems to have been dialogues, some of them being vehement attacks on his contemporaries, as on Alcibiades in the second of his two works entitled Cyrus, on Gorgias in his Archelaus and on Plato in his Satho.

Theopompus

Philippica
His style was pure and elegant, and Theopompus even said that Plato stole from him many of his thoughts.

Cicero

Marcus Tullius CiceroTullyCicero’s
Cicero, after reading some works by Antisthenes, found his works pleasing and called him "a man more intelligent than learned".

Pleasure

pleasantpleasurablerewarding
Antisthenes was a pupil of Socrates, from whom he imbibed the fundamental ethical precept that virtue, not pleasure, is the end of existence.

Natural philosophy

natural philosophernatural philosophersNatural
His work on Natural Philosophy (the Physicus) contained a theory of the nature of the gods, in which he argued that there were many gods believed in by the people, but only one natural God.