Antiviral drug

antiviralantiretroviral therapyantiviralsantiviral medicationantiviral drugsanti-viralantiviral therapyantiviral agentsantiviral agentantiretroviral drugs
Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.wikipedia
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Antibiotic

antibioticsantibacterialtopical antibiotic
Antiviral drugs are one class of antimicrobials, a larger group which also includes antibiotic (also termed antibacterial), antifungal and antiparasitic drugs, or antiviral drugs based on monoclonal antibodies.
Antibiotics are not effective against viruses such as the common cold or influenza; drugs which inhibit viruses are termed antiviral drugs or antivirals rather than antibiotics.

Virus

virusesviralvirion
Most antivirals are used for specific viral infections, while a broad-spectrum antiviral is effective against a wide range of viruses.
Several antiviral drugs have been developed.

Infection

infectious diseaseinfectious diseasesinfections
Most antivirals are considered relatively harmless to the host, and therefore can be used to treat infections.
Specific medications used to treat infections include antibiotics, antivirals, antifungals, antiprotozoals, and antihelminthics.

Hepatitis B

Bchronic hepatitis Bhepatitis B virus
Most of the antiviral drugs now available are designed to help deal with HIV, herpes viruses, the hepatitis B and C viruses, and influenza A and B viruses. For instance, public schools require students to receive vaccinations (termed "vaccination schedule") for viruses and bacteria such as diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DTaP), measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), varicella (chickenpox), hepatitis B, rotavirus, polio, and more.
In those who develop chronic disease, antiviral medication such as tenofovir or interferon may be useful; however, these drugs are expensive.

Medication

pharmaceuticalpharmaceuticalspharmaceutical drug
Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections rather than bacterial ones.
antibiotics, antifungals, antileprotics, antituberculous drugs, antimalarials, anthelmintics, amoebicides, antivirals, antiprotozoals, probiotics, prebiotics, antitoxins and antivenoms.

Chickenpox

chicken poxvaricellaCongenital varicella syndrome
For instance, public schools require students to receive vaccinations (termed "vaccination schedule") for viruses and bacteria such as diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DTaP), measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), varicella (chickenpox), hepatitis B, rotavirus, polio, and more.
For those at increased risk of complications, antiviral medication such as aciclovir are recommended.

Stockpiling antiviral medications for pandemic influenza

Antiviral stockpilesdrug stockpiling for pandemic preparedness
Antiviral stockpiles prepare for shortages of antiviral medications in cases of public health emergencies.
An antiviral stockpile is a reserve supply of essential antiviral medications in case of shortage.

Influenza

fluhuman fluthe flu
They are also difficult to successfully deploy against rapidly mutating viruses, such as influenza (the vaccine for which is updated every year) and HIV.
Antiviral drugs such as the neuraminidase inhibitor oseltamivir, among others, have been used to treat influenza.

2009 flu pandemic

2009 swine flu outbreakswine fluswine flu outbreak
Guidelines such as those provided by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) during the 2009 flu pandemic caused by the H1N1 virus, recommend antiviral treatment regimens, clinical assessment algorithms for coordination of care, and antiviral chemoprophylaxis guidelines for exposed persons, among others.
In fact, a November 2009 New England Journal of Medicine article recommended that flu patients whose chest X-ray indicates pneumonia receive both antivirals and antibiotics.

Immune system

immuneimmune responseimmune function
Vaccination involves the introduction (i.e. via injection) of a small amount of typically inactivated or attenuated antigenic material to stimulate an individual's immune system.
Common cytokines include interleukins that are responsible for communication between white blood cells; chemokines that promote chemotaxis; and interferons that have anti-viral effects, such as shutting down protein synthesis in the host cell.

Hepatitis C

Chepatitis-CHCV
Most of the antiviral drugs now available are designed to help deal with HIV, herpes viruses, the hepatitis B and C viruses, and influenza A and B viruses.
Treatment with antiviral medication is recommended in all people with proven chronic hepatitis C who are not at high risk of dying from other causes.

Pleconaril

Pleconaril works against rhinoviruses, which cause the common cold, by blocking a pocket on the surface of the virus that controls the uncoating process.
Pleconaril (Picovir ) is an antiviral drug that was being developed by Schering-Plough for prevention of asthma exacerbations and common cold symptoms in patients exposed to picornavirus respiratory infections.

HIV

human immunodeficiency virusHIV-positiveHIV positive
Most of the antiviral drugs now available are designed to help deal with HIV, herpes viruses, the hepatitis B and C viruses, and influenza A and B viruses. They are also difficult to successfully deploy against rapidly mutating viruses, such as influenza (the vaccine for which is updated every year) and HIV.
The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs.

Rimantadine

Flumadine
Amantadine and rimantadine have been introduced to combat influenza.
Rimantadine (INN, sold under the trade name Flumadine) is an orally administered antiviral drug used to treat, and in rare cases prevent, influenzavirus A infection.

Measles

Rubeolameasles encephalitisAcute Measles encephalitis
For instance, public schools require students to receive vaccinations (termed "vaccination schedule") for viruses and bacteria such as diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus (DTaP), measles, mumps, rubella (MMR), varicella (chickenpox), hepatitis B, rotavirus, polio, and more.
There is no specific antiviral treatment if measles develops.

Herpes simplex virus

HSV-1HSVherpes virus
The first experimental antivirals were developed in the 1960s, mostly to deal with herpes viruses, and were found using traditional trial-and-error drug discovery methods.
Treatment usually involves general-purpose antiviral drugs that interfere with viral replication, reduce the physical severity of outbreak-associated lesions, and lower the chance of transmission to others.

Meningitis

spinal meningitisbacterial meningitiscerebral meningitis
This pocket is similar in most strains of rhinoviruses and enteroviruses, which can cause diarrhea, meningitis, conjunctivitis, and encephalitis.
The first treatment in acute meningitis consists of promptly giving antibiotics and sometimes antiviral drugs.

Aciclovir

acyclovirZoviraxAcihexal
The first successful antiviral, aciclovir, is a nucleoside analogue, and is effective against herpesvirus infections.
Aciclovir (ACV), also known as acyclovir, is an antiviral medication.

Drug design

rational drug designcomputer-aided drug designdesign
Researchers working on such "rational drug design" strategies for developing antivirals have tried to attack viruses at every stage of their life cycles.

Encephalitis

brain inflammationAcute encephalitis syndromeinflammation of the brain
This pocket is similar in most strains of rhinoviruses and enteroviruses, which can cause diarrhea, meningitis, conjunctivitis, and encephalitis.
Treatment may include antiviral medications (such as acyclovir), anticonvulsants, and corticosteroids.

HIV/AIDS

AIDSHIVacquired immune deficiency syndrome
The emergence of antivirals is the product of a greatly expanded knowledge of the genetic and molecular function of organisms, allowing biomedical researchers to understand the structure and function of viruses, major advances in the techniques for finding new drugs, and the pressure placed on the medical profession to deal with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), the cause of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS).

Protease inhibitor (pharmacology)

protease inhibitorprotease inhibitorsHIV protease inhibitor
HIV includes a protease, and so considerable research has been performed to find "protease inhibitors" to attack HIV at that phase of its life cycle.
Protease inhibitors (PIs) are a class of antiviral drugs that are widely used to treat HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C.

Fomivirsen

Vitravene
A phosphorothioate antisense drug named fomivirsen has been introduced, used to treat opportunistic eye infections in AIDS patients caused by cytomegalovirus, and other antisense antivirals are in development.
Fomivirsen (brand name Vitravene) is an antisense antiviral drug that was used in the treatment of cytomegalovirus retinitis (CMV) in immunocompromised patients, including those with AIDS.

Oseltamivir

TamifluFluviroseltamavir
Two drugs named zanamivir (Relenza) and oseltamivir (Tamiflu) that have been recently introduced to treat influenza prevent the release of viral particles by blocking a molecule named neuraminidase that is found on the surface of flu viruses, and also seems to be constant across a wide range of flu strains.
Oseltamivir, sold under the brand name Tamiflu, is an antiviral medication used to treat and prevent influenza A and influenza B (flu).

Management of HIV/AIDS

antiretroviralantiretroviral drugantiretroviral drugs
The management of HIV/AIDS normally includes the use of multiple antiretroviral drugs in an attempt to control HIV infection.