Aorta

aorticaortic archaortic rootventral aortaA'''ortic rootaortasaortic branchaortic mechanismsaortic mediaaortitis
The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries).wikipedia
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Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries). One way of classifying a part of the aorta is by anatomical compartment, where the thoracic aorta (or thoracic portion of the aorta) runs from the heart to the diaphragm.
Oxygenated blood then returns to the left atrium, passes through the left ventricle and is pumped out through the aorta to the systemic circulation−where the oxygen is used and metabolized to carbon dioxide.

Descending thoracic aorta

thoracic aortathoracicthoracic part
One way of classifying a part of the aorta is by anatomical compartment, where the thoracic aorta (or thoracic portion of the aorta) runs from the heart to the diaphragm.
The descending thoracic aorta is a part of the aorta located in the thorax.

Abdominal aorta

abdominalabdominal aorticaorta, abdominal
The aorta then continues downward as the abdominal aorta (or abdominal portion of the aorta) diaphragm to the aortic bifurcation.
As part of the aorta, it is a direct continuation of the descending aorta (of the thorax).

Ascending aorta

aortic rootaorticaortic bulb
In this system, the aorta starts as the ascending aorta then travels superiorly from the heart and then makes a hairpin turn known as the aortic arch.
The ascending aorta (AAo) is a portion of the aorta commencing at the upper part of the base of the left ventricle, on a level with the lower border of the third costal cartilage behind the left half of the sternum.

Aortic arch

arch of the aortaaortic knobisthmus of aorta
In this system, the aorta starts as the ascending aorta then travels superiorly from the heart and then makes a hairpin turn known as the aortic arch. The aortic arch loops over the left pulmonary artery and the bifurcation of the pulmonary trunk, to which it remains connected by the ligamentum arteriosum, a remnant of the fetal circulation that is obliterated a few days after birth.
The aortic arch, arch of the aorta, or transverse aortic arch is the part of the aorta between the ascending and descending aorta.

Abdomen

abdominalabdominal musclesbelly
The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries).
The spleen, kidneys, and adrenal glands also lie within the abdomen, along with many blood vessels including the aorta and inferior vena cava.

Ventricle (heart)

ventricleleft ventricleright ventricle
The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries).
In a four-chambered heart, such as that in humans, there are two ventricles that operate in a double circulatory system: the right ventricle pumps blood into the pulmonary circulation to the lungs, and the left ventricle pumps blood into the systemic circulation through the aorta.

Median sacral artery

middle sacralmiddle sacral arterymedian sacral
The aorta ends by dividing into two major blood vessels, the common iliac arteries and a smaller midline vessel, the median sacral artery.
The median sacral artery (or middle sacral artery) is a small vessel that arises posterior to the abdominal aorta and superior to its bifurcation.

Aortic valve

aorticaortic valvesaortic semilunar valve
The ascending aorta begins at the opening of the aortic valve in the left ventricle of the heart. At the root of the ascending aorta, the lumen has three small pockets between the cusps of the aortic valve and the wall of the aorta, which are called the aortic sinuses or the sinuses of Valsalva.
The aortic valve is a valve in the human heart between the left ventricle and the aorta.

Circulatory system

cardiovascularcirculationcardiovascular system
The aorta distributes oxygenated blood to all parts of the body through the systemic circulation.
The first part of the systemic circulation is the aorta, a massive and thick-walled artery.

Thoracic diaphragm

diaphragmdiaphragmatichemidiaphragm
One way of classifying a part of the aorta is by anatomical compartment, where the thoracic aorta (or thoracic portion of the aorta) runs from the heart to the diaphragm.
There are three large openings—the aortic, the esophageal, and the caval opening—plus a series of smaller ones.

Left coronary artery

left coronaryleft main coronary arteryleft
The left aortic sinus contains the origin of the left coronary artery and the right aortic sinus likewise gives rise to the right coronary artery.
The left coronary artery (abbreviated LCA) is an artery that arises from the aorta above the left cusp of the aortic valve and feeds blood to the left side of the heart.

Pericardium

epicardiumpericardialpericardial cavity
It runs through a common pericardial sheath with the pulmonary trunk.
This happens at two areas: where the aorta and pulmonary trunk leave the heart and where the superior vena cava, inferior vena cava and pulmonary veins enter the heart.

Artery

arteriesarterialarterial system
The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries).
After travelling from the aorta, blood travels through peripheral arteries into smaller arteries called arterioles, and eventually to capillaries.

Lumbar arteries

lumbar arterylumbarArteria lumbalis
It gives rise to lumbar and musculophrenic arteries, renal and middle suprarenal arteries, and visceral arteries (the celiac trunk, the superior mesenteric artery and the inferior mesenteric artery).
They are usually four in number on either side, and arise from the back of the aorta, opposite the bodies of the upper four lumbar vertebrae.

Aortic sinus

sinus of Valsalvaaortic sinusesSinus of Morgagni (aorta)
At the root of the ascending aorta, the lumen has three small pockets between the cusps of the aortic valve and the wall of the aorta, which are called the aortic sinuses or the sinuses of Valsalva.
These widenings are between the wall of the aorta and each of the three cusps of the aortic valve.

Aorticopulmonary septum

aortic septumspiral septum
The smooth muscle of the great arteries and the population of cells that form the aorticopulmonary septum that separates the aorta and pulmonary artery is derived from cardiac neural crest.
neural crest, and actively separates the aorta and pulmonary arteries and fuses with the interventricular septum within the heart during heart development.

Human body

bodyhuman anatomyhuman physiology
The aorta is the main artery in the human body, originating from the left ventricle of the heart and extending down to the abdomen, where it splits into two smaller arteries (the common iliac arteries).
From here, it is pumped into the body's largest artery, the aorta, and then progressively smaller arteries and arterioles until it reaches tissue.

Fetal circulation

antenatal circulationBlood flowembryonic artery
The aortic arch loops over the left pulmonary artery and the bifurcation of the pulmonary trunk, to which it remains connected by the ligamentum arteriosum, a remnant of the fetal circulation that is obliterated a few days after birth.
The continuation of this blood flow is into the left ventricle, and from there it is pumped through the aorta into the body.

Pulmonary artery

pulmonary arteriespulmonary trunkpulmonary
It runs through a common pericardial sheath with the pulmonary trunk. The aortic arch loops over the left pulmonary artery and the bifurcation of the pulmonary trunk, to which it remains connected by the ligamentum arteriosum, a remnant of the fetal circulation that is obliterated a few days after birth. In patent ductus arteriosus, a congenital disorder, the fetal ductus arteriosis fails to close, leaving an open vessel connecting the pulmonary artery to the proximal descending aorta.
These progressively enlarge until the trunk splits into the aorta and pulmonary arteries.

Persistent truncus arteriosus

Truncus arteriosus (Persistent)truncus arteriosus, persistenttruncus arteriosus
A failure of the aorticopulmonary septum to divide the great vessels results in persistent truncus arteriosus.
In this condition, the embryological structure known as the truncus arteriosus fails to properly divide into the pulmonary trunk and aorta.

Vasa vasorum

blood vessels supplying the artery itselfsmall blood vesselsvasa-vasorum
The thickness of the aorta requires an extensive network of tiny blood vessels called vasa vasorum, which feed the tunica externa and tunica media outer layers of the aorta.
The vasa vasorum is a network of small blood vessels that supply the walls of large blood vessels, such as elastic arteries (e.g. aorta) and large veins (e.g. venae cavae).

Recurrent laryngeal nerve

recurrent nerverecurrent laryngeallaryngeal nerve
The left vagus nerve, which passes anterior to the aortic arch, gives off a major branch, the recurrent laryngeal nerve, which loops under the aortic arch just lateral to the ligamentum arteriosum.
As the recurrent nerve hooks around the subclavian artery or aorta, it gives off several branches.

Arterial tree

arterial branchesdistal descending aorta
The pulsatile nature of blood flow creates a pulse wave that is propagated down the arterial tree, and at bifurcations reflected waves rebound to return to semilunar valves and the origin of the aorta.
Starting from the aorta:

Patent ductus arteriosus

ductus arteriosusductus arteriosus, patentopen ductus arteriosus
In patent ductus arteriosus, a congenital disorder, the fetal ductus arteriosis fails to close, leaving an open vessel connecting the pulmonary artery to the proximal descending aorta.
In a PDA, the vessel does not close and remains "patent" (open), resulting in an irregular transmission of blood between the aorta and the pulmonary artery.