Aortic aneurysm

aortic aneurysmsaortic aneurismaneurysmabdominal aortic aneurysmaneurysmsabdominal aortic surgeryaneurism of the heartaneuritic aortaaneurysm of the aortaaneurysm of the aortic arch
An aortic aneurysm is an enlargement (dilatation) of the aorta to greater than 1.5 times normal size.wikipedia
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Abdominal aortic aneurysm

abdominal aneurysmabdominal aortic aneurysmsabdominal
They are most commonly located in the abdominal aorta, but can also be located in the thoracic aorta.
AAAs are the most common form of aortic aneurysm.

Thoracic aortic aneurysm

aneurysm of the aortic rootthoracicthoracic aorta
They are most commonly located in the abdominal aorta, but can also be located in the thoracic aorta.
A thoracic aortic aneurysm is an aortic aneurysm that presents primarily in the thorax.

Aortic rupture

ruptured aortaruptureruptured aortic aneurysm
Aortic aneurysms cause weakness in the wall of the aorta and increase the risk of aortic rupture.
The most common cause of aortic rupture is a ruptured aortic aneurysm.

Aneurysm

aneurysmsaneurismruptured aneurysm
Most AAA are true aneurysms that involve all three layers (tunica intima, tunica media and tunica adventitia).
Although they may occur in any blood vessel, particularly lethal examples include aneurysms of the Circle of Willis in the brain, aortic aneurysms affecting the thoracic aorta, and abdominal aortic aneurysms.

Aorta

aorticaortic archaortic root
An aortic aneurysm is an enlargement (dilatation) of the aorta to greater than 1.5 times normal size.

Vasa vasorum

blood vessels supplying the artery itselfsmall blood vesselsvasa-vasorum
Another is that the abdominal aorta does not possess vasa vasorum, the nutrient-supplying blood vessels within the wall of the aorta.

Marfan syndrome

Marfan's syndromeMarfanMarfanoid
The diameter of the aneurysm, its rate of growth, the presence or absence of Marfan syndrome, Ehlers–Danlos syndromes or similar connective tissue disorders, and other co-morbidities are all important factors in the overall treatment.
The most serious complications involve the heart and aorta, with an increased risk of mitral valve prolapse and aortic aneurysm.

Bruit

bruitsarterial bruitsCardiac bruit
A bruit may be heard from the turbulent flow in the aneurysm.

Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva

aortic root dilatationaneurysm of the sinus of Valsalvadilation of the valve annulus

Loeys–Dietz syndrome

Loeys-Dietz syndromeLoeys-DietzLoeys-Deitz aortic aneurysm syndrome
There is overlap in the manifestations of Loeys–Dietz and Marfan syndromes, including increased risk of ascending aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection, abnormally long limbs and fingers, and dural ectasia (a gradual stretching and weakening of the dura mater that can cause abdominal and leg pain).

Abdominal pain

stomach acheupset stomachabdominal discomfort
As they enlarge, symptoms such as abdominal pain and back pain may develop.

Syphilis

syphilitictertiary syphilissecondary syphilis
The most common complication is syphilitic aortitis, which may result in aortic aneurysm formation.

Cardiovascular disease

heart diseasecardiac diseasecardiovascular
For example, a small aneurysm in an elderly patient with severe cardiovascular disease would not be repaired.
Other CVDs include stroke, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, abnormal heart rhythms, congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, carditis, aortic aneurysms, peripheral artery disease, thromboembolic disease, and venous thrombosis.

Statin

statinsHMG-CoA reductase inhibitorHMG-CoA reductase inhibitors
The medical management of patients with aortic aneurysms, reserved for smaller aneurysms or frail patients, involves cessation of smoking, blood pressure control, use of statins and occasionally beta blockers.
Defining illnesses include a prior heart attack, stroke, stable or unstable angina, aortic aneurysm, or other arterial ischemic disease, in the presence of atherosclerosis.

Hypertension

high blood pressurehypertensivearterial hypertension
This does not treat the aortic aneurysm per se, but control of hypertension within tight blood pressure parameters may decrease the rate of expansion of the aneurysm.
It increases the risk of ischemic heart disease, strokes, peripheral vascular disease, and other cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure, aortic aneurysms, diffuse atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease, atrial fibrillation, and pulmonary embolism.

Aortic valve repair

It can also become necessary for the treatment of aortic aneurysm, less frequently for congenital aortic stenosis.

Ehlers–Danlos syndromes

Ehlers-Danlos syndromeEhlers–Danlos syndromeEhlers Danlos Syndrome
The diameter of the aneurysm, its rate of growth, the presence or absence of Marfan syndrome, Ehlers–Danlos syndromes or similar connective tissue disorders, and other co-morbidities are all important factors in the overall treatment.

Bicuspid aortic valve

bicuspid valvecongenitally have two leaflets
Notable complications of BAV include narrowing of the aortic valve opening, backward blood flow at the aortic valve, dilation of the ascending aorta, and infection of the heart valve.

Cardarelli's sign

Cardarelli's sign is an abnormal pulsation of the trachea that may be found in patients with a dilation or aneurysm of the aortic arch.

Aortic dissection

dissecting aortic aneurysmdissectionthoracic aortic dissection
The relative risk of late rupture of an aortic aneurysm is 10 times higher in individuals who have uncontrolled hypertension, compared to individuals with a systolic pressure below 130 mmHg.

Bleeding

hemorrhagehaemorrhagehemorrhaging
When rupture occurs, massive internal bleeding results and, unless treated immediately, shock and death can occur.

Hypovolemic shock

shockHypovolemiclow blood pressure from fluid loss
When rupture occurs, massive internal bleeding results and, unless treated immediately, shock and death can occur.

Ultrasound

ultrasonicultrasonicsultrasounds
Screening with ultrasound is indicated in those at high risk.

Smoking

smokerssmokersmoke
Prevention is by decreasing risk factors, such as smoking, and treatment is either by open or endovascular surgery.