Aortic aneurysm

aortic aneurismaortic aneurysmsaneurysmabdominal aortic aneurysmaneurysmsabdominal aortic surgeryaneurism of the heartaneuritic aortaaneurysm of the aortaaneurysm of the aortic arch
An aortic aneurysm is an enlargement (dilation) of the aorta to greater than 1.5 times normal size.wikipedia
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Abdominal aortic aneurysm

abdominal aneurysmabdominal aortic aneurysmsabdominal aneurism
They are most commonly located in the abdominal aorta, but can also be located in the thoracic aorta.
AAAs are the most common form of aortic aneurysm.

Thoracic aortic aneurysm

aneurysm of the aortic rootthoracic aorta
They are most commonly located in the abdominal aorta, but can also be located in the thoracic aorta.
A thoracic aortic aneurysm is an aortic aneurysm that presents primarily in the thorax.

Aortic rupture

ruptured aortaruptureruptured aortic aneurysm
Aortic aneurysms cause weakness in the wall of the aorta and increase the risk of aortic rupture.
Aortic rupture secondary to an aortic aneurysm

Aneurysm

aneurysmsaneurismruptured aneurysm
Most AAA are true aneurysms that involve all three layers (tunica intima, tunica media and tunica adventitia).
Although they may occur in any blood vessel, particularly lethal examples include aneurysms of the Circle of Willis in the brain, aortic aneurysms affecting the thoracic aorta, and abdominal aortic aneurysms.

Vasa vasorum

blood vessels supplying the artery itselfsmall blood vesselsvasa-vasorum
Another is that the abdominal aorta does not possess vasa vasorum, the nutrient-supplying blood vessels within the wall of the aorta.
In the human descending aorta, vasa vasorum cease to supply the arterial tunica media with oxygenated blood at the level of the renal arteries. Thus, below this point, the aorta is dependent on diffusion for its metabolic needs, and is necessarily markedly thinner. This leads to an increased likelihood of aortic aneurysm at this location, especially in the presence of atherosclerotic plaques. Other species, such as dogs, do have vasa vasorum below their renal vasculature, and aneurysms at this site are substantially less likely. Cerebral blood vessels are devoid of vasa vasorum; however, these vessels have rete vasorum, which have similar function to vasa vasorum.

Aorta

aorticaortic archaortic root
An aortic aneurysm is an enlargement (dilation) of the aorta to greater than 1.5 times normal size.
Aortic aneurysm – mycotic, bacterial (e.g. syphilis), senile, genetic, associated with valvular heart disease

Marfan syndrome

MarfanMarfan's syndromeMarfanoid
Marfan syndrome
The most serious complications involve the heart and aorta, with an increased risk of mitral valve prolapse and aortic aneurysm.

Bruit

bruitsarterial bruitshumming noise
A bruit may be heard from the turbulent flow in the aneurysm.
Aortic aneurysm

Aneurysm of sinus of Valsalva

aortic root dilatationaneurysm of the sinus of Valsalvadilation of the valve annulus
An aortic root aneurysm, or aneurysm of the sinus of Valsalva.
Aortic aneurysm

Loeys–Dietz syndrome

Loeys-DietzLoeys-Dietz Syndrome (type 3)Loeys–Dietz aortic aneurysm syndrome
Loeys-Dietz Syndrome
There is overlap in the manifestations of Loeys–Dietz and Marfan syndromes, including increased risk of ascending aortic aneurysm and aortic dissection, abnormally long limbs and fingers, and dural ectasia (a gradual stretching and weakening of the dura mater that can cause abdominal and leg pain).

Syphilis

syphilitictertiary syphilissyphilology
Syphilis
The most common complication is syphilitic aortitis, which may result in aortic aneurysm formation.

Cardiovascular disease

heart diseasecardiac diseaseheart condition
For example, a small aneurysm in an elderly patient with severe cardiovascular disease would not be repaired.
Other CVDs include stroke, heart failure, hypertensive heart disease, rheumatic heart disease, cardiomyopathy, heart arrhythmia, congenital heart disease, valvular heart disease, carditis, aortic aneurysms, peripheral artery disease, thromboembolic disease, and venous thrombosis.

Hypertension

high blood pressurehypertensivearterial hypertension
Hypertension
It increases the risk of ischemic heart disease, strokes, peripheral vascular disease, and other cardiovascular diseases, including heart failure, aortic aneurysms, diffuse atherosclerosis, chronic kidney disease, atrial fibrillation, and pulmonary embolism.

Aortic valve repair

Aortic valve repair
It can also become necessary for the treatment of aortic aneurysm, less frequently for congenital aortic stenosis.

Ehlers–Danlos syndromes

Ehlers-Danlos syndromeEhlers Danlos syndromeEhlers-Danlos
Ehlers-Danlos type IV
Dilation and/or rupture (aneurysm) of ascending aorta

Bicuspid aortic valve

bicuspid valvecongenitally have two leaflets
Bicuspid Aortic Valve
Notable complications of BAV include narrowing of the aortic valve opening, backward blood flow at the aortic valve, dilation of the ascending aorta, and infection of the heart valve.

Cardarelli's sign

Cardarelli's sign
Cardarelli's sign is an abnormal pulsation of the trachea that may be found in patients with a dilation or aneurysm of the aortic arch.

Aortic dissection

dissecting aortic aneurysmdissectionthoracic aortic dissection
Aortic dissection
The relative risk of late rupture of an aortic aneurysm is 10 times higher in individuals who have uncontrolled hypertension, compared to individuals with a systolic pressure below 130 mmHg.

Bleeding

hemorrhagehaemorrhagehemorrhaging
When rupture occurs, massive internal bleeding results and, unless treated immediately, shock and death can occur.

Ultrasound

ultrasonicultrasonicsultrasounds
Screening with ultrasound is indicated in those at high risk, prevention is by decreasing risk factors such as smoking, and treatment is either by open or endovascular surgery.

Abdominal pain

stomach acheupset stomachstomachache
As they enlarge, symptoms such as abdominal pain and back pain may develop.

Back pain

back spasmbackacheback spasms
As they enlarge, symptoms such as abdominal pain and back pain may develop.

Embolism

emboliemboluscerebral embolism
Rarely, clotted blood which lines most aortic aneurysms can break off and result in an embolus.

Recurrent laryngeal nerve

recurrent nerverecurrent laryngeallaryngeal nerve
In patients presenting with aneurysm of the arch of the aorta, a common sign is a hoarse voice from stretching of the left recurrent laryngeal nerve, a branch of the vagus nerve that winds around the aortic arch to supply the muscles of the larynx.