Aortic stenosis

aortic valve stenosisAorticstenosissupravalvular aortic stenosisAortic (valve) stenosisaortic calcificationaortic outflow tract obstructionmoderatenarrowing of the aortic valvesevere stenosis
Aortic stenosis (AS or AoS) is the narrowing of the exit of the left ventricle of the heart (where the aorta begins), such that problems result.wikipedia
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Bicuspid aortic valve

bicuspid valvecongenitally have two leaflets
Causes include being born with a bicuspid aortic valve, and rheumatic fever.
BAV may become calcified later in life, which may lead to varying degrees of severity of aortic stenosis that will manifest as murmurs.

Aortic valvuloplasty

balloon aortic valvuloplastypercutaneous balloon valvuloplastyvalvuloplasty
Another less invasive procedure, balloon aortic valvuloplasty (BAV), may result in benefit, but for only a few months.
Aortic valvuloplasty also known as balloon aortic valvotomy is the widening of a stenotic aortic valve using a balloon catheter inside the valve.

Valvular heart disease

heart valve diseasecardiac valve diseasevalve disease
Aortic stenosis is the most common valvular heart disease in the developed world.
1) Severe aortic stenosis with or without symptoms

Heart

cardiachuman heartapex of the heart
Aortic stenosis (AS or AoS) is the narrowing of the exit of the left ventricle of the heart (where the aorta begins), such that problems result.
Diseased heart valves may have a narrow opening and therefore restrict the flow of blood in the forward direction (referred to as a stenotic valve), or may allow blood to leak in the reverse direction (referred to as valvular regurgitation).

Sodium nitroprusside

nitroprussidenitroprusside reactionNa 3 Fe(CN) 5 NO
Nitroprusside or phenylephrine may be used in those with decompensated heart failure depending on the blood pressure.
This compound has also been used as a treatment for aortic valve stenosis, oesophageal varices, myocardial infarction, pulmonary hypertension, respiratory distress syndrome in the newborn, shock, and ergot toxicity.

Syncope (medicine)

syncopefaintingfaint
If heart failure, loss of consciousness, or heart related chest pain occurs due to AS the outcomes are worse.
Aortic stenosis and mitral stenosis are the most common examples.

Stenosis

stricturestricturesnarrowing
Aortic stenosis (AS or AoS) is the narrowing of the exit of the left ventricle of the heart (where the aorta begins), such that problems result.
Aortic valve stenosis, which is the thickening of the aortic valve, therefore causing narrowing

Heyde's syndrome

multiple colonic angiodysplasiae
In Heyde's syndrome, aortic stenosis is associated with gastrointestinal bleeding due to angiodysplasia of the colon.
Heyde's syndrome is a syndrome of gastrointestinal bleeding from angiodysplasia in the presence of aortic stenosis.

Aorta

aorticaortic archaortic root
Aortic stenosis (AS or AoS) is the narrowing of the exit of the left ventricle of the heart (where the aorta begins), such that problems result.
Aortic stenosis

Heart murmur

murmurheart murmursmurmurs
AS typically results in a heart murmur.
Aortic valve stenosis typically is a crescendo/decrescendo systolic murmur best heard at the right upper sternal border sometimes with radiation to the carotid arteries.

Valve replacement

heart valve replacementreplacementvalve replacement surgery
Once it has become severe, treatment primarily involves valve replacement surgery, with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) being an option in some who are at high risk from surgery.
Catheter replacement of the aortic valve (called trans-aortic valve replacement or implementation [TAVR or TAVI]) is a minimally invasive option for those suffering from aortic valve stenosis.

Left ventricular hypertrophy

enlargement and thickening of the left ventricleenlargement of the main pumping chamber of the hearthypertrophy, left ventricular
Angina in the setting of AS occurs due to left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) that is caused by the constant production of increased pressure required to overcome the pressure gradient caused by the AS. While the muscular layer of the left ventricle thickens, the arteries that supply the muscle do not get significantly longer or bigger, so the muscle may not receive enough blood supply to meet its oxygen requirement. CHF in the setting of AS is due to a combination of left ventricular hypertrophy with fibrosis, systolic dysfunction (a decrease in the ejection fraction) and diastolic dysfunction (elevated filling pressure of the LV).
Causes of increased afterload that can cause LVH include aortic stenosis, aortic insufficiency and hypertension.

Angiodysplasia

In Heyde's syndrome, aortic stenosis is associated with gastrointestinal bleeding due to angiodysplasia of the colon.
A classic association is Heyde's syndrome (coincidence of aortic valve stenosis and bleeding from angiodysplasia).

Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction

diastolic dysfunctiondiastolic heart failureDiasatolic dysfunction
CHF in the setting of AS is due to a combination of left ventricular hypertrophy with fibrosis, systolic dysfunction (a decrease in the ejection fraction) and diastolic dysfunction (elevated filling pressure of the LV).
Aortic stenosis of any cause where the ventricular muscle becomes hypertrophied, and thence stiff, as a result of the increased pressure load placed on it by the stenosis.

Fabry disease

Anderson-Fabry diseaseFabry's diseaseGLA
Rare causes of aortic stenosis include Fabry disease, systemic lupus erythematosus, Paget disease, high blood uric acid levels, and infection.
If severe, this can cause the valves to leak (regurgitation) or to restrict the forward flow of blood (stenosis).

Left bundle branch block

leftleft bundle branch block (LBBB)left bundle-branch block
Evidence of this phenomenon may rarely include ECG patterns characteristic of certain types of heart block such as Left bundle branch block.
Aortic stenosis

Von Willebrand disease

von Willebrands DiseaseBleeding disorderstype 1 von Willebrand disease
Recent research has shown that the stenosis causes a form of von Willebrand disease by breaking down its associated coagulation factor (factor VIII-associated antigen, also called von Willebrand factor), due to increased turbulence around the stenotic valve.
A form of vWD occurs in patients with aortic valve stenosis, leading to gastrointestinal bleeding (Heyde's syndrome).

Pulse

pulse ratepulsationheartbeat
This is sometimes referred to as pulsus parvus et tardus.
It may be due to low cardiac output (as seen in shock, congestive cardiac failure), hypovolemia, valvular heart disease (such as aortic outflow tract obstruction, mitral stenosis, aortic arch syndrome) etc.

Heart failure

congestive heart failurecardiac failurechronic heart failure
If heart failure, loss of consciousness, or heart related chest pain occurs due to AS the outcomes are worse.
Heart murmurs may indicate the presence of valvular heart disease, either as a cause (e.g. aortic stenosis) or as a result (e.g. mitral regurgitation) of the heart failure.

ACE inhibitor

angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitorangiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitorACE inhibitors
Complications such as heart failure may be treated in the same way as in those with mild to moderate AS. In those with severe disease a number of medications should be avoided, including ACE inhibitors, nitroglycerin, and some beta blockers.
Aortic valve stenosis or cardiac outflow obstruction

Aortic valve area calculation

Aortic valve areacalculatedThe Gorlin Equation
The aortic valve area can be calculated non-invasively using echocardiographic flow velocities.
Aortic valve area calculation is an indirect method of determining the area of the aortic valve (aortic valve area or AVA). The calculated aortic valve orifice area is currently one of the measures for evaluating the severity of aortic stenosis.

Aortic valve replacement

aortic valve replacement surgeryprosthetic valvereplaced
In adults, symptomatic severe aortic stenosis usually requires aortic valve replacement (AVR).
The aortic valve can be affected by a range of diseases; the valve can either become leaky (aortic insufficiency) or partially blocked (aortic stenosis).

Pulsus bisferiens

biphasic
Rather, new signs that reflect the presence of simultaneous aortic stenosis and insufficiency, e.g., pulsus bisferiens, emerge.
It is a sign of problems with the aortic valve, including aortic stenosis and aortic regurgitation, as well as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy causing subaortic stenosis.

Percutaneous aortic valve replacement

transcatheter aortic valve replacementtranscatheter aortic valve implantationpercutaneious transapical TAVI
Once it has become severe, treatment primarily involves valve replacement surgery, with transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) being an option in some who are at high risk from surgery.
Severe symptomatic aortic stenosis carries a poor prognosis.

Von Willebrand factor

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Recent research has shown that the stenosis causes a form of von Willebrand disease by breaking down its associated coagulation factor (factor VIII-associated antigen, also called von Willebrand factor), due to increased turbulence around the stenotic valve.
Most cases of vWD are hereditary, but abnormalities of VWF may be acquired; aortic valve stenosis, for instance, has been linked to vWD type IIA, causing gastrointestinal bleeding - an association known as Heyde's syndrome.