Apartheid

South Africa under apartheidapartheid in South Africaapartheid South Africaanti-apartheidapartheid eraSouth African apartheidapartheid regimeSouth Africaapartheid-eraapartheid-era South Africa
Apartheid (South African English: ;, segregation; lit. "separateness") was a system of institutionalised racial segregation that existed in South Africa and South West Africa (Namibia) from 1948 until the early 1990s.wikipedia
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South Africa

South AfricanRepublic of South AfricaRSA
Apartheid (South African English: ;, segregation; lit. "separateness") was a system of institutionalised racial segregation that existed in South Africa and South West Africa (Namibia) from 1948 until the early 1990s.
The National Party imposed apartheid in 1948, institutionalising previous racial segregation.

National Party (South Africa)

National PartyNPNationalist Party
Apartheid was adopted as a formal policy by the South African government after the election of the National Party (NP) at the 1948 general election.
Beginning in 1948 the party as the governing party of South Africa began implementing its policy of racial segregation, known as apartheid (the Afrikaans term for "separateness").

Bantu peoples in South Africa

Black Africanblack South Africansblack
According to this system of social stratification, white citizens had the highest status, followed in descending order by Asians, Coloureds, and black Africans.
Black people from South Africa were at times officially called Bantu (Bantoe) by the apartheid regime.

White supremacy

white supremacistwhite supremacistswhite supremacism
Apartheid was characterised by an authoritarian political culture based on baasskap (or white supremacy), which ensured that South Africa was dominated politically, socially, and economically by the nation's minority white population.
The term is also used to describe a political ideology that perpetuates and maintains the social, political, historical, or institutional domination by white people (as evidenced by historical and contemporary sociopolitical structures such as the Atlantic slave trade, Jim Crow laws in the United States, the set of "White Australia" policies from the 1890s until the mid-1970s, and apartheid in South Africa).

Internal resistance to apartheid

anti-apartheidInternal resistance to South African apartheidanti-apartheid movement
During the 1970s and 1980s, internal resistance to apartheid became increasingly militant, prompting brutal crackdowns by the National Party government and protracted sectarian violence that left thousands dead or in detention.
Internal resistance to apartheid in South Africa originated from several independent sectors of South African society and alternatively took the form of social movements, passive resistance, or guerrilla warfare.

Namibia

NamibianRepublic of NamibiaSouth West Africa
Apartheid (South African English: ;, segregation; lit. "separateness") was a system of institutionalised racial segregation that existed in South Africa and South West Africa (Namibia) from 1948 until the early 1990s.
From 1948, with the National Party elected to power, South Africa applied apartheid also to what was then known as South West Africa.

Negotiations to end apartheid in South Africa

CODESAConvention for a Democratic South Africanegotiations to end apartheid
Between 1987–1993, the National Party entered into bilateral negotiations with the African National Congress (ANC), the leading anti-apartheid political movement, for ending segregation and introducing majority rule.
The apartheid system in South Africa was ended through a series of negotiations between 1990 and 1993 and through unilateral steps by the de Klerk government.

Nelson Mandela

MandelaNelson Rolihlahla MandelaPresident Nelson Mandela
In 1990, prominent ANC figures such as Nelson Mandela were released from prison.
His government focused on dismantling the legacy of apartheid by tackling institutionalised racism and fostering racial reconciliation.

Bantustan

Bantustanshomelandshomeland
Most of these targeted removals were intended to restrict the black African population to ten designated "tribal homelands", also known as bantustans, four of which became nominally independent states.
A Bantustan (also known as Bantu homeland, black homeland, black state or simply homeland; Bantoestan) was a territory set aside for black inhabitants of South Africa and South West Africa (now Namibia), as part of the policy of apartheid.

African National Congress

ANCSouth African Native National CongressAfrican National Congress (ANC)
Between 1987–1993, the National Party entered into bilateral negotiations with the African National Congress (ANC), the leading anti-apartheid political movement, for ending segregation and introducing majority rule.
This included giving full voting rights to black South Africans and mixed-race South Africans and, from 1948 onwards, to end the system of apartheid introduced by the Nationalist Party government after their election (by White voters only) in that year.

Racial segregation

segregationsegregatedsegregationist
Apartheid (South African English: ;, segregation; lit. "separateness") was a system of institutionalised racial segregation that existed in South Africa and South West Africa (Namibia) from 1948 until the early 1990s.
Following its conquest of Ottoman controlled Algeria in 1830, for well over a century France maintained colonial rule in the territory which has been described as "quasi-apartheid".

Pass laws

Natives (Urban Areas) ActPass Lawpass
Prior to the 1940s, some aspects of apartheid had already emerged in the form of minority rule by white South Africans and the socially enforced separation of black Africans from other races, which later extended to pass laws and land apportionment.
Pass laws would be one of the dominant features of the country's apartheid system, until it was effectively ended in 1986.

Asian South Africans

AsianIndianAsians
According to this system of social stratification, white citizens had the highest status, followed in descending order by Asians, Coloureds, and black Africans.
Traditionally, the group does not include the "Cape Malays", who were descended (at least in part) from Southeast Asians, who were classified as "Coloured" under apartheid.

Immorality Act

Immorality Amendment Act
The first apartheid law was the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, 1949, followed closely by the Immorality Amendment Act of 1950, which made it illegal for most South African citizens to marry or pursue sexual relationships across racial lines.
A person's colour during trial was dictated by their 'race', a term which at the time described a person's appearance, mannerisms, and assumed descent/ethnicity (similar to later 'colour classifications' recognised during the Apartheid era of South African history, where races were decided upon by government officials, not pre-determined by the true ethnicity of the accused).

Baasskap

white supremacybaaskap
Apartheid was characterised by an authoritarian political culture based on baasskap (or white supremacy), which ensured that South Africa was dominated politically, socially, and economically by the nation's minority white population.
Baasskap was a concept referring to white supremacy in South Africa which was used during apartheid.

Transvaal (province)

TransvaalTransvaal ProvinceWestern Transvaal
Its urban losses in the nation's most populous province, the Transvaal, proved equally devastating.
The Province of the Transvaal (Provinsie Transvaal), commonly referred to as the Transvaal, was a province of South Africa from 1910 until 1994, when a new constitution subdivided it following the end of apartheid.

Cecil Rhodes

Cecil John RhodesRhodesCape to Cairo
The Glen Grey Act of 1894, instigated by the government of Prime Minister Cecil John Rhodes limited the amount of land Africans could hold.
Ambitions such as these, juxtaposed with his policies regarding indigenous Africans in the Cape Colony—describing the country's native black population as largely "in a state of barbarism", he advocated their governance as a "subject race", and was at the centre of actions to marginalise them politically—have led recent critics to characterise him as a white supremacist and "an architect of apartheid".

Xhosa people

XhosaamaXhosaXhosas
This was followed by Ordinance 3 in 1848, which introduced an indenture system for Xhosa that was little different from slavery.
The pre-1994 apartheid system of Bantustans denied the Xhosa South African citizenship, but enabled them to have self-governing "homelands" namely; Transkei and Ciskei, now both a part of the Eastern Cape Province where most Xhosa remain.

D. F. Malan

Daniel François MalanD.F. MalanDaniel Malan
Daniel François Malan became the first nationalist prime minister, with the aim of implementing the apartheid philosophy and silencing liberal opposition.
The National Party implemented the system of apartheid, which enforced racial segregation laws.

Universal suffrage

universal adult suffrageuniversal franchiseuniversal male suffrage
Apartheid legislation was repealed on 17 June 1991, pending multiracial elections held under a universal suffrage set for April 1994.
For example, in apartheid-era South Africa, non-white people could generally not vote in national elections until the first multi-party elections in 1994 (except under the Cape Qualified Franchise, which was replaced by a number of separate MPs in 1936 (Blacks) and 1958 (Coloureds), later by the Tricameral Parliament).

Natal Legislative Assembly Bill

The Franchise and Ballot Act of 1892 instituted limits based on financial means and education to the black franchise, and the Natal Legislative Assembly Bill of 1894 deprived Indians of the right to vote.
The Natives Legislative Assembly Bill of 1894, formed part of the apartheid system of racial segregation in South Africa.

Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, 1949

Prohibition of Mixed Marriages ActProhibition of Mixed Marriages Amendment Act, 1968courted illegally
The first apartheid law was the Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, 1949, followed closely by the Immorality Amendment Act of 1950, which made it illegal for most South African citizens to marry or pursue sexual relationships across racial lines.
The Prohibition of Mixed Marriages Act, Act No 55 of 1949, was an apartheid law in South Africa that prohibited marriages between "Europeans" and "non-Europeans".

South African English

EnglishSouth AfricanSouth Africa
Apartheid (South African English: ;, segregation; lit. "separateness") was a system of institutionalised racial segregation that existed in South Africa and South West Africa (Namibia) from 1948 until the early 1990s.
The Apartheid policy, in effect from 1948 to 1991, prevented Indian children from publicly interacting with people of English heritage.

Population Registration Act, 1950

Population Registration ActPopulation Registration Act Repeal Act, 1991four recognised South African races
The Population Registration Act, 1950 classified all South Africans into one of four racial groups based on appearance, known ancestry, socioeconomic status, and cultural lifestyle: "Black", "White", "Coloured", and "Indian", the last two of which included several sub-classifications.
The Population Registration Act of 1950 required that each inhabitant of South Africa be classified and registered in accordance with his or her racial characteristics as part of the system of apartheid.

Hendrik Verwoerd

Hendrik Frensch VerwoerdVerwoerdH.F. Verwoerd
This policy was initially expounded from a theory drafted by Hendrik Verwoerd and was presented to the National Party by the Sauer Commission.
To that end, he greatly expanded apartheid, the system of forced classification and segregation by race that existed in South Africa from 1948 to 1994.