Apathy

A depiction of Rama in the Ramayana. Worried about his wife Sita, he is consoled by his brother Lakshmana.

Lack of feeling, emotion, interest, or concern about something.

- Apathy

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Schizophrenia

Mental disorder characterized by continuous or relapsing episodes of psychosis.

Cloth embroidered by a person diagnosed with schizophrenia
My Eyes at the Moment of the Apparitions by German artist August Natterer, who had schizophrenia
Risperidone (trade name Risperdal) is a common atypical antipsychotic medication.
Deaths per million persons due to schizophrenia in 2012.
The term "schizophrenia" was coined by Eugen Bleuler.
A molecule of chlorpromazine, the first antipsychotic developed in the 1950s
John Nash, an American mathematician and joint recipient of the 1994 Nobel Memorial Prize in Economic Sciences, who had schizophrenia. His life was the subject of the 1998 book, A Beautiful Mind by Sylvia Nasar.

Other symptoms include social withdrawal, decreased emotional expression, and apathy.

Parkinson's disease

Long-term degenerative disorder of the central nervous system that mainly affects the motor system.

Illustration of Parkinson's disease by William Richard Gowers, first published in A Manual of Diseases of the Nervous System (1886)
A man with PD displaying a flexed walking posture pictured in 1892
Handwriting of a person affected by PD
Parkin crystal structure
A Lewy body (stained brown) in a brain cell of the substantia nigra in Parkinson's disease: The brown colour is positive immunohistochemistry staining for alpha-synuclein.
An illustration of the dopamine pathways throughout the brain.
"Hot Cross Bun" sign that is commonly found in MRI of Multiple System Atrophy.
Pharmacological treatment of Parkinson's disease
COMT metabolizes levodopa to 3-O-methyldopa. COMT inhibitors help stop this reaction, allowing for more levodopa to cross the blood-brain barrier and become dopamine where it is needed.
Placement of an electrode into the brain: The head is stabilised in a frame for stereotactic surgery.
Deaths from PD per million persons in 2012
Jean-Martin Charcot, who made important contributions to the understanding of the disease and proposed its current name honoring James Parkinson
"Parkinson's awareness" logo with red tulip symbol
Muhammad Ali at the World Economic Forum in Davos, at the age of 64. He had shown signs of parkinsonism from the age of 38 until his death.

Cognitive and behavioral problems may also occur with depression, anxiety, and apathy occurring in many people with PD. Parkinson's disease dementia becomes common in the advanced stages of the disease.

Flow (psychology)

Mental state in which a person performing some activity is fully immersed in a feeling of energized focus, full involvement, and enjoyment in the process of the activity.

Concentrating on a task, one aspect of flow
Young child, painting a model
Flow may occur in challenging sports such as eventing.

Some of the challenges to staying in flow include states of apathy, boredom, and anxiety.

Alzheimer's disease

Neurodegenerative disease that usually starts slowly and progressively worsens.

Drawing comparing a normal aged brain (left) and the brain of a person with Alzheimer's. Characteristics that separate the two are pointed out.
Stages of atrophy in Alzheimer's.
A normal brain on the left and a late-stage Alzheimer's brain on the right
In Alzheimer's disease, changes in tau protein lead to the disintegration of microtubules in brain cells.
Histopathologic images of Alzheimer's disease, in the CA3 area of the hippocampus, showing an amyloid plaque (top right), neurofibrillary tangles (bottom left), and granulovacuolar degeneration bodies (bottom center)
PET scan of the brain of a person with Alzheimer's disease showing a loss of function in the temporal lobe
Cognitive tests such as the Mini–Mental State Examination (MMSE) can help in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease. In this test instructions are given to copy drawings like the one shown, remember some words, read, and subtract numbers serially.
Intellectual activities such as playing chess or regular social interaction have been linked to a reduced risk of Alzheimer's disease in epidemiological studies, although no causal relationship has been found.
Three-dimensional molecular model of donepezil, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor used in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease symptoms
Molecular structure of memantine, a medication approved for advanced Alzheimer's disease symptoms
Alois Alzheimer's patient Auguste Deter in 1902. Hers was the first described case of what became known as Alzheimer's disease.
Self-portrait of artist William Utermohlen, created after Alzheimer's disease diagnosis

Apathy and depression can be seen at this stage, with apathy remaining as the most persistent symptom throughout the course of the disease.

Reduced affect display

Condition of reduced emotional reactivity in an individual.

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Reduced affect should be distinguished from apathy and anhedonia, which explicitly refer to a lack of emotion, whereas reduced affect is a lack of emotional expression (affect display) regardless of whether emotion (underlying affect) is actually reduced or not.

Lethargy

State of tiredness, sleepiness, weariness, fatigue, sluggishness or lack of energy.

Long meetings can often be a source of exhaustion, as evidenced by Lyndon B. Johnson in this photograph.

It can be accompanied by depression, decreased motivation, or apathy.

Apatheia

Not disturbed by the passions.

Zeno of Citium, the founder of Stoicism, in the Farnese collection, Naples – Photo by Paolo Monti, 1969

The meaning of the word apatheia is quite different from that of the modern English apathy, which has a distinctly negative connotation.

Schizoid personality disorder

People with schizoid personality disorder often prefer solitary activities.

Schizoid personality disorder (, often abbreviated as SPD or SzPD) is a personality disorder characterized by a lack of interest in social relationships, a tendency toward a solitary or sheltered lifestyle, secretiveness, emotional coldness, detachment and apathy.

Dementia

Damaged by injury or disease.

Image of a man diagnosed with dementia in the 1800s
A drawing of a woman diagnosed with dementia
A drawing of an old man diagnosed with senile dementia
Brain atrophy in severe Alzheimer's
Donepezil
Deaths per million persons in 2012 due to dementia
Disability-adjusted life year for Alzheimer and other dementias per 100,000 inhabitants in 2004.
Woman with dementia being cared for at home in Ethiopia

Behavioral changes may include apathy, lethargy and diminished emotional responses and spontaneity.

Post-traumatic stress disorder

Mental and behavioral disorder that can develop because of exposure to a traumatic event, such as sexual assault, warfare, traffic collisions, child abuse, domestic violence, or other threats on a person's life.

Service members use art to relieve PTSD symptoms.
No quieren (They do not want to) by Francisco Goya (1746–1828) depicts an elderly woman wielding a knife in defense of a girl being assaulted by a soldier.
Regions of the brain associated with stress and post-traumatic stress disorder
The diagram depicts how emotions, thoughts, and behaviors all influence each other. The triangle in the middle represents CBT's tenet that all humans' core beliefs can be summed up in three categories: self, others, future.
Vietnam Veterans Memorial, Washington, D.C.
Statue, Three Servicemen, Vietnam Veterans Memorial

Dopamine levels in a person with PTSD can contribute to symptoms: low levels can contribute to anhedonia, apathy, impaired attention, and motor deficits; high levels can contribute to psychosis, agitation, and restlessness.