Apollo 8

8Apollo 8 missionApollo8Debrief: Apollo 8S-IVB
Apollo 8 was the first crewed spacecraft to leave low Earth orbit and the first to reach the Moon, orbit it, and return.wikipedia
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Frank Borman

BormanFrank F. Borman IIBorman, Frank
Its three-astronaut crew—Frank Borman, James Lovell, and William Anders—were the first humans to fly to the Moon, to witness and photograph an Earthrise, and to escape the gravity of a celestial body. The initial crew assignment of Frank Borman as Commander, Michael Collins as Command Module Pilot (CMP) and William Anders as Lunar Module Pilot (LMP) for the third crewed Apollo flight was officially announced on November 20, 1967.
He was the commander of Apollo 8, the first mission to fly around the Moon, and together with crewmates Jim Lovell and Bill Anders, became the first of 24 humans to do so, for which he was awarded the Congressional Space Medal of Honor.

Jim Lovell

James LovellJames A. LovellJames A. Lovell Jr.
Its three-astronaut crew—Frank Borman, James Lovell, and William Anders—were the first humans to fly to the Moon, to witness and photograph an Earthrise, and to escape the gravity of a celestial body.
In 1968, as command module pilot of Apollo 8, he became one of the first three humans to fly to and orbit the Moon.

Moon

lunarthe MoonLuna
Apollo 8 was the first crewed spacecraft to leave low Earth orbit and the first to reach the Moon, orbit it, and return.
The United States' NASA Apollo program achieved the only manned lunar missions to date, beginning with the first manned orbital mission by Apollo 8 in 1968, and six manned landings between 1969 and 1972, with the first being Apollo 11 in July 1969.

Bill Anders

William AndersWilliam A. AndersAnders
Its three-astronaut crew—Frank Borman, James Lovell, and William Anders—were the first humans to fly to the Moon, to witness and photograph an Earthrise, and to escape the gravity of a celestial body. The initial crew assignment of Frank Borman as Commander, Michael Collins as Command Module Pilot (CMP) and William Anders as Lunar Module Pilot (LMP) for the third crewed Apollo flight was officially announced on November 20, 1967.
In December 1968, as a crew member of Apollo 8, he was one of the first three people to leave low Earth orbit and travel to the Moon.

Earthrise

1968 Christmas Eve tripphotograph of the same namephotographs taken from space of the Earth
Its three-astronaut crew—Frank Borman, James Lovell, and William Anders—were the first humans to fly to the Moon, to witness and photograph an Earthrise, and to escape the gravity of a celestial body.
Earthrise is a photograph of Earth and some of the Moon's surface that was taken from lunar orbit by astronaut William Anders on December 24, 1968, during the Apollo 8 mission.

Apollo 8 Genesis reading

reads from GenesisApollo 8Apollo8 crew reading from the Book of Genesis
The crew orbited the Moon ten times over the course of twenty hours, during which they made a Christmas Eve television broadcast in which they read the first ten verses from the Book of Genesis.
On December 24, 1968, in what was the most watched television broadcast at the time, the crew of Apollo 8, at the suggestion of Christine Laitin, read in turn from the Book of Genesis as they orbited the Moon.

Apollo 7

Apollo7Apollos 7first manned Apollo
Apollo 8 launched on December 21, 1968, and was the second crewed spaceflight mission flown in the United States Apollo space program after Apollo 7, which stayed in Earth orbit.
Despite tension between the crew and ground controllers, the mission was a complete technical success, giving NASA the confidence to send Apollo 8 into orbit around the Moon two months later.

Human spaceflight

space travelmannedmanned spaceflight
Apollo 8 launched on December 21, 1968, and was the second crewed spaceflight mission flown in the United States Apollo space program after Apollo 7, which stayed in Earth orbit.
The US succeeded in developing the Saturn V rocket necessary to send the Apollo spacecraft to the Moon, and sent Frank Borman, James Lovell, and William Anders into 10 orbits around the Moon in Apollo 8 in December 1968.

Time Person of the Year

Person of the YearMan of the YearTime'' Person of the Year
The crew members were named Time magazine's "Men of the Year" for 1968 upon their return.

Apollo 11

1969 moon landingmoon landingfirst moon landing
Apollo 8's successful mission paved the way for Apollo 11 to fulfill U.S. president John F. Kennedy's goal of landing a man on the Moon before the end of the 1960s.
In October 1968, Apollo 7 evaluated the command module in Earth orbit, and in December Apollo 8 tested it in lunar orbit.

Low Earth orbit

Low EarthLEOlow-Earth orbit
Apollo 8 was the first crewed spacecraft to leave low Earth orbit and the first to reach the Moon, orbit it, and return.
Apollo 8 was the first mission to carry humans beyond LEO on December 21–27, 1968.

Kennedy Space Center

KennedyJohn F. Kennedy Space CenterKSC
Apollo8 was the third flight and the first crewed launch of the Saturn V rocket, and was the first human spaceflight from the Kennedy Space Center, located adjacent to Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.
The Saturn V's first crewed launch on December 21, 1968, was Apollo 8's lunar orbiting mission.

Astronaut

cosmonautastronautscosmonauts
Its three-astronaut crew—Frank Borman, James Lovell, and William Anders—were the first humans to fly to the Moon, to witness and photograph an Earthrise, and to escape the gravity of a celestial body.
The first manned mission to orbit the Moon, Apollo 8, included American William Anders who was born in Hong Kong, making him the first Asian-born astronaut in 1968.

Apollo 13

13Apollo 13 Mission Operations TeamApollo 13 accident
Haise served on the backup crew of Apollo 11 as LMP and flew on Apollo 13 as LMP.
He was a graduate of the United States Naval Academy and had been a naval aviator and test pilot before being selected for the second group of astronauts in 1962; he flew with Frank Borman in Gemini 7 in 1965 and Buzz Aldrin in Gemini 12 the following year before flying in Apollo 8 in 1968, the first spacecraft to orbit the Moon.

Apollo 10

10Apollo X Manned Spacecraft speed record
The new mission would also allow NASA to test lunar landing procedures that would otherwise have had to wait until Apollo 10, the scheduled "F" mission.
Apollo 10 was a May 1969 human spaceflight, the fourth crewed mission in the United States Apollo program, and the second (after Apollo8) to orbit the Moon.

Apollo TV camera

Apollo lunar landing camerascolor TV cameralive television
The crew orbited the Moon ten times over the course of twenty hours, during which they made a Christmas Eve television broadcast in which they read the first ten verses from the Book of Genesis.
Apollo 7 and Apollo 8 used an RCA slow-scan, black-and-white camera.

Vance D. Brand

Vance BrandBrandVance DeVoe Brand
For Apollo8, the support crew consisted of Ken Mattingly, Vance Brand, and Gerald Carr.
One of the 19 pilot astronauts selected by NASA in April 1966, Brand initially was a crew member in the thermal vacuum chamber testing of the prototype command module (alongside astronauts Joe Engle and Dr. Joseph Kerwin) and support crewman on Apollos 8 and 13.

Buzz Aldrin

Edwin "Buzz" AldrinEdwin AldrinEdwin E. Aldrin
The backup crew assignment of Neil Armstrong as Commander, Lovell as CMP, and Buzz Aldrin as LMP for the third crewed Apollo flight was officially announced at the same time as the prime crew.
Due to design and manufacturing delays in the lunar module (LM), Apollo 8 and Apollo9 swapped prime and backup crews, and Armstrong's crew became the backup for Apollo 8.

Fred Haise

Fred W. HaiseHaiseFred Haise, Jr.
When Lovell was reassigned to the prime crew, Aldrin was moved to CMP, and Fred Haise was brought in as backup LMP.
He was the first astronaut among his class to be assigned to a mission, serving as backup Lunar Module Pilot for both Apollo 8 and Apollo 11.

Ken Mattingly

Thomas K. MattinglyThomas MattinglyThomas K. Mattingly II
For Apollo8, the support crew consisted of Ken Mattingly, Vance Brand, and Gerald Carr.
At first, Mattingly was part of the support crew for Apollo 8, and then trained parallel with Bill Anders for Apollo 11 as backup Command Module Pilot, because Anders was going to retire from NASA in August 1969, and in case of mission delay, he would be unavailable.

Michael Collins (astronaut)

Michael CollinsMike CollinsCol'''lins
The initial crew assignment of Frank Borman as Commander, Michael Collins as Command Module Pilot (CMP) and William Anders as Lunar Module Pilot (LMP) for the third crewed Apollo flight was officially announced on November 20, 1967.
When the Apollo 8 mission was changed from a CSM/LM mission in high Earth orbit to a CSM-only flight around the Moon, both prime and backup crews for Apollo8 and9 swapped places.

Gerald Carr (astronaut)

Gerald P. CarrGerald CarrGerry Carr
For Apollo8, the support crew consisted of Ken Mattingly, Vance Brand, and Gerald Carr.
He served as a member of the astronaut support crews and as CAPCOM for the Apollo 8 and 12 flights, and was involved in the development and testing of the Lunar Roving Vehicle.

Saturn V

Saturn V rocketSaturnVSaturn
Apollo8 was the third flight and the first crewed launch of the Saturn V rocket, and was the first human spaceflight from the Kennedy Space Center, located adjacent to Cape Canaveral Air Force Station in Florida.

Neil Armstrong

Neil A. ArmstrongArmstrongJanet Shearon Armstrong
The backup crew assignment of Neil Armstrong as Commander, Lovell as CMP, and Buzz Aldrin as LMP for the third crewed Apollo flight was officially announced at the same time as the prime crew.
After design and manufacturing delays of the lunar module (LM), Apollo 8 and9 swapped prime and backup crews.

Trans-lunar injection

translunar injectionTLITrans Lunar Injection
This was followed by a trans-lunar injection (TLI) burn of the S-IVB third stage for 318 seconds, accelerating the 63650 lb command and service module and 19900 lb LM test article from an orbital velocity of 25567 ft/s to the injection velocity of 35505 ft/s which set a record for the highest speed, relative to Earth, that humans had ever traveled.
The first human-crewed mission to perform TLI was Apollo 8 on December 21, 1968, making them the first humans to leave the Earth's influence.