Apollo program

ApolloApollo missionsApollo space programApollo moon landingsProject ApolloApollo missionApollo moon missionsApollo space missionsApollo moon programApollo manned lunar landing program
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which succeeded in landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.wikipedia
1,664 Related Articles

NASA

National Aeronautics and Space AdministrationNational Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)space program
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which succeeded in landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972. The program was named after Apollo, the Greek god of light, music, and the sun, by NASA manager Abe Silverstein, who later said that "I was naming the spacecraft like I'd name my baby."
Since its establishment, most US space exploration efforts have been led by NASA, including the Apollo Moon landing missions, the Skylab space station, and later the Space Shuttle.

Project Gemini

GeminiGemini programGemini spacecraft
It was the third US human spaceflight program to fly, preceded by the two-man Project Gemini conceived in 1961 to extend spaceflight capability in support of Apollo.
Conducted between projects Mercury and Apollo, Gemini started in 1961 and concluded in 1966.

Apollo 11

1969 moon landingmoon landingApollo 11 moon landing
Kennedy's goal was accomplished on the Apollo 11 mission when astronauts Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin landed their lunar module (LM) on July 20, 1969, and walked on the lunar surface, while Michael Collins remained in lunar orbit in the command and service module (CSM), and all three landed safely on Earth on July 24. Five subsequent Apollo missions also landed astronauts on the Moon, the last in December 1972.
Apollo 11 was launched by a Saturn V rocket from Kennedy Space Center on Merritt Island, Florida, on July 16 at 13:32 UTC, and was the fifth crewed mission of NASA's Apollo program.

Moon

lunarthe MoonLuna
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which succeeded in landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
The United States' NASA Apollo program achieved the only manned lunar missions to date, beginning with the first manned orbital mission by Apollo 8 in 1968, and six manned landings between 1969 and 1972, with the first being Apollo 11.

Apollo 1

Apollo 1 fireAS-204first manned Apollo mission
It achieved its goal of manned lunar landing, despite the major setback of a 1967 Apollo 1 cabin fire that killed the entire crew during a prelaunch test.
Apollo 1, initially designated AS-204, was the first crewed mission of the United States Apollo program, the program to land the first men on the Moon.

List of Apollo astronauts

24 people to have flown to the Moonwalk on the MoonApollo astronaut
In these six spaceflights, twelve men walked on the Moon.
Thirty-two astronauts were assigned to fly in the Apollo manned lunar landing program.

Apollo 13

13Apollo 13 accidentApollo 13 Splashdown
Five of the remaining six missions achieved successful landings, but the Apollo 13 landing was prevented by an oxygen tank explosion in transit to the Moon, which destroyed the service module's capability to provide electrical power, crippling the CSM's propulsion and life support systems.
Apollo 13 was the seventh manned mission in the Apollo space program and the third intended to land on the Moon.

Apollo 8

8Apollo 8 missionDebrief: Apollo 8
Apollo 8 was the first manned spacecraft to orbit another celestial body, while the final Apollo 17 mission marked the sixth Moon landing and the ninth manned mission beyond low Earth orbit.
Apollo 8, the second manned spaceflight mission flown in the United States Apollo space program, was launched on December 21, 1968, and became the first manned spacecraft to leave low Earth orbit, reach the Moon, orbit it, and return.

Human spaceflight

manned spaceflightmannedspace travel
The Apollo program, also known as Project Apollo, was the third United States human spaceflight program carried out by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA), which succeeded in landing the first humans on the Moon from 1969 to 1972.
The US started the three-man Apollo program in 1961 to accomplish this, launched by the Saturn family of launch vehicles, and the interim two-man Project Gemini in 1962, which flew 10 missions launched by Titan II rockets in 1965 and 1966.

Apollo 17

17Apollo 17,Apollo 17: Splashdown
Apollo 8 was the first manned spacecraft to orbit another celestial body, while the final Apollo 17 mission marked the sixth Moon landing and the ninth manned mission beyond low Earth orbit.
Apollo 17 was the final mission of NASA's Apollo program and the last mission in which humans traveled to and walked on the Moon.

Saturn (rocket family)

SaturnSaturn familySaturn rocket
Apollo used Saturn family rockets as launch vehicles, which were also used for an Apollo Applications Program, which consisted of Skylab, a space station that supported three manned missions in 1973–74, and the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, a joint US-Soviet Union Earth-orbit mission in 1975.
Originally proposed as a military satellite launcher, they were adopted as the launch vehicles for the Apollo moon program.

Apollo Applications Program

ApolloApollo Applications
Apollo used Saturn family rockets as launch vehicles, which were also used for an Apollo Applications Program, which consisted of Skylab, a space station that supported three manned missions in 1973–74, and the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, a joint US-Soviet Union Earth-orbit mission in 1975.
The Apollo Applications Program (AAP) was established by NASA headquarters in 1968 to develop science-based manned space missions using hardware developed for the Apollo program.

Project Mercury

MercuryMercury programMercury spacecraft
First conceived during Dwight D. Eisenhower's administration as a three-man spacecraft to follow the one-man Project Mercury which put the first Americans in space, Apollo was later dedicated to President John F. Kennedy's national goal of "landing a man on the Moon and returning him safely to the Earth" by the end of the 1960s, which he proposed in an address to Congress on May 25, 1961.
Its success laid the groundwork for Project Gemini, which carried two astronauts in each capsule and perfected space docking maneuvers essential for manned lunar landings in the subsequent Apollo program announced a few weeks after the first manned Mercury flight.

Abe Silverstein

The program was named after Apollo, the Greek god of light, music, and the sun, by NASA manager Abe Silverstein, who later said that "I was naming the spacecraft like I'd name my baby."
He was instrumental in the planning of the Apollo, Ranger, Mariner, Surveyor, and Voyager missions, and named the Apollo program after the Greek and Roman God.

Marshall Space Flight Center

MSFCGeorge C. Marshall Space Flight CenterMarshall
On July 1, 1960, NASA established the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) in Huntsville, Alabama.
The largest NASA center, MSFC's first mission was developing the Saturn launch vehicles for the Apollo Moon program.

Skylab

Skylab Orbital WorkshopSky LabSkylab space station
Apollo used Saturn family rockets as launch vehicles, which were also used for an Apollo Applications Program, which consisted of Skylab, a space station that supported three manned missions in 1973–74, and the Apollo–Soyuz Test Project, a joint US-Soviet Union Earth-orbit mission in 1975.
A large station was no longer necessary for such purposes, and the United States Apollo program to send men to the Moon chose a mission mode that would not need in-orbit assembly.

Maxime Faget

Max Faget
Meanwhile, NASA performed its own in-house spacecraft design studies led by Maxime Faget, to serve as a gauge to judge and monitor the three industry designs.
Faget was the designer of the Mercury spacecraft, and contributed to the later Gemini and Apollo spacecraft as well as the Space Shuttle.

Saturn IB

IBSaturn 1-BSaturn 1B
The two newest launch complexes were already being built for the Saturn I and IB rockets at the northernmost end: LC-34 and LC-37.
The Saturn IB (pronounced "one B", also known as the uprated Saturn I) was an American launch vehicle commissioned by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) for the Apollo program.

North American Aviation

North AmericanNA: North AmericanNAA
On November 28, 1961, it was announced that North American Aviation had won the contract, although its bid was not rated as good as Martin's.
North American Aviation (NAA) was a major American aerospace manufacturer, responsible for a number of historic aircraft, including the T-6 Texan trainer, the P-51 Mustang fighter, the B-25 Mitchell bomber, the F-86 Sabre jet fighter, the X-15 rocket plane, and the XB-70, as well as Apollo command and service module, the second stage of the Saturn V rocket, the Space Shuttle orbiter and the B-1 Lancer.

Johnson Space Center

Manned Spacecraft CenterNASA Johnson Space CenterJSC
The program laid the foundation for NASA's subsequent human spaceflight capability and funded construction of its Johnson Space Center and Kennedy Space Center.
It has become popularly known for its flight control function, identified as "Mission Control" during the Gemini, Apollo, Skylab, Apollo–Soyuz, and Space Shuttle program flights.

Kennedy Space Center Launch Complex 39

LC-39ALC-39BLaunch Pad 39A
The LOC included Launch Complex 39, a Launch Control Center, and a 130 million cubic foot (3.7 million cubic meter) Vertical Assembly Building (VAB) in which the space vehicle (launch vehicle and spacecraft) would be assembled on a Mobile Launcher Platform and then moved by a transporter to one of several launch pads.
The site and its collection of facilities were originally built for the Apollo program, and later modified for the Space Shuttle program.

Space Task Group

In July 1960, NASA Deputy Administrator Hugh L. Dryden announced the Apollo program to industry representatives at a series of Space Task Group conferences. It became clear that managing the Apollo program would exceed the capabilities of Robert R. Gilruth's Space Task Group, which had been directing the nation's manned space program from NASA's Langley Research Center.
After President John F. Kennedy set the goal in 1961 for the Apollo Program to land men on the Moon, NASA decided a much larger organization and a new facility was required to perform the Task Group's function, and it was transformed into the Manned Spacecraft Center (now the Lyndon B. Johnson Space Center), located in Houston, Texas.

We choose to go to the Moon

speechJFK speecha 1962 speech
In September 1962, by which time two Project Mercury astronauts had orbited the Earth, Gilruth had moved his organization to rented space in Houston, and construction of the MSC facility was under way, Kennedy visited Rice to reiterate his challenge in a famous speech:
The speech was intended to persuade the American people to support the Apollo program, the national effort to land a man on the Moon.

Samuel C. Phillips

Samuel C. Phillips AwardoneSam Phillips
Based on his industry experience on Air Force missile projects, Mueller realized some skilled managers could be found among high-ranking officers in the United States Air Force, so he got Webb's permission to recruit General Samuel C. Phillips, who gained a reputation for his effective management of the Minuteman program, as OMSF program controller.
General Samuel Cochran Phillips (February 19, 1921 – January 31, 1990) was a United States Air Force four-star general who served as Director of NASA's Apollo Manned Lunar Landing Program from 1964 to 1969, the seventh Director of the National Security Agency from 1972 to 1973, and as Commander, Air Force Systems Command (COMAFSC) from 1973 to 1975.

Robert R. Gilruth

Bob GilruthGilruth, Robert R.Robert Gilruth
It became clear that managing the Apollo program would exceed the capabilities of Robert R. Gilruth's Space Task Group, which had been directing the nation's manned space program from NASA's Langley Research Center.
He was involved with early research into supersonic flight and rocket-powered aircraft, and then with the United States manned space program, including the Mercury, Gemini, and Apollo programs.