Appeasement

appeasement of Hitlerappeaseappeaserappeasement policyappeasinganti-appeaserAppeasement of Nazi Germanyappeasement policiesappeasement politicsappeasers
Appeasement in an international context is a diplomatic policy of making political or material concessions to an aggressive power in order to avoid conflict.wikipedia
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Neville Chamberlain

ChamberlainNevilleArthur Neville Chamberlain
The term is most often applied to the foreign policy of the British governments of Prime Ministers Ramsay MacDonald, Stanley Baldwin and Neville Chamberlain towards Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy between 1935 and 1939.
Chamberlain is best known for his foreign policy of appeasement, and in particular for his signing of the Munich Agreement in 1938, conceding the German-speaking Sudetenland region of Czechoslovakia to Germany.

Treaty of Versailles

Versailles TreatyVersaillesVersailles Peace Treaty
At the beginning of the 1930s, such concessions were widely seen as positive due to the trauma of World War I, second thoughts about the vindictive treatment of Germany in the Treaty of Versailles, and a perception that Fascism was a useful form of anti-communism.
The result of these competing and sometimes conflicting goals among the victors was a compromise that left no one satisfied, and, in particular, Germany was neither pacified nor conciliated, nor was it permanently weakened.

Duff Cooper

Alfred Duff CooperDuff Cooper, 1st Viscount Norwich The Right Honourable '''Alfred Duff Cooper
However, by the time of the Munich Pact—concluded on 30 September 1938 among Germany, Britain, France, and Italy—the policy was opposed by the Labour Party, by a few Conservative dissenters such as Winston Churchill and Duff Cooper, and even by Anthony Eden, a former proponent of appeasement.
In the intense political debates of the late 1930s over appeasement, he first put his trust in the League of Nations, and later realised that war with Germany was inevitable.

Anthony Eden

Sir Anthony EdenEdenAnthony Eden, 1st Earl of Avon
However, by the time of the Munich Pact—concluded on 30 September 1938 among Germany, Britain, France, and Italy—the policy was opposed by the Labour Party, by a few Conservative dissenters such as Winston Churchill and Duff Cooper, and even by Anthony Eden, a former proponent of appeasement.
Achieving rapid promotion as a young Member of Parliament, he became Foreign Secretary aged 38, before resigning in protest at Neville Chamberlain's appeasement policy towards Mussolini's Italy.

Munich Agreement

Munich CrisisMunich ConferenceSudeten Crisis
However, by the time of the Munich Pact—concluded on 30 September 1938 among Germany, Britain, France, and Italy—the policy was opposed by the Labour Party, by a few Conservative dissenters such as Winston Churchill and Duff Cooper, and even by Anthony Eden, a former proponent of appeasement.
Hitler announced it was his last territorial claim in Europe, and the choice seemed to be between war and appeasement.

Winston Churchill

Sir Winston ChurchillChurchillChurchill, Winston
However, by the time of the Munich Pact—concluded on 30 September 1938 among Germany, Britain, France, and Italy—the policy was opposed by the Labour Party, by a few Conservative dissenters such as Winston Churchill and Duff Cooper, and even by Anthony Eden, a former proponent of appeasement.
Out of office during the 1930s, Churchill took the lead in calling for British rearmament to counter the growing threat from Nazi Germany.

Labour Party (UK)

Labour PartyLabourBritish Labour Party
However, by the time of the Munich Pact—concluded on 30 September 1938 among Germany, Britain, France, and Italy—the policy was opposed by the Labour Party, by a few Conservative dissenters such as Winston Churchill and Duff Cooper, and even by Anthony Eden, a former proponent of appeasement. Hugh Dalton, a Labour Party MP who usually advocated stiff resistance to Germany, said that neither the British people nor Labour would support military or economic sanctions.
As the threat from Nazi Germany increased, in the late 1930s the Labour Party gradually abandoned its pacifist stance and came to support re-armament, largely due to the efforts of Ernest Bevin and Hugh Dalton who by 1937 had also persuaded the party to oppose Neville Chamberlain's policy of appeasement.

Samuel Hoare, 1st Viscount Templewood

Samuel HoareSir Samuel HoareSir Samuel Hoare, Bt
But in November 1935, the British Foreign Secretary, Sir Samuel Hoare and the French Prime Minister, Pierre Laval, had secret discussions in which they agreed to concede two-thirds of Abyssinia to Italy.
He was seen as a leading "appeaser" and his removal from office (along with that of Sir John Simon and the removal of Neville Chamberlain as Prime Minister) was a condition of Labour's agreement to serve in a coalition government in May 1940.

Hugh Dalton

Edward Hugh John Neale DaltonDalton[Hugh] Dalton
Hugh Dalton, a Labour Party MP who usually advocated stiff resistance to Germany, said that neither the British people nor Labour would support military or economic sanctions.
He shaped Labour Party foreign policy in the 1930s, opposing pacifism and promoting rearmament against the German threat, and strongly opposed the appeasement policy of Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain in 1938.

Andrew Roberts (historian)

Andrew RobertsRoberts, Andrew
Historian Andrew Roberts argues in 2019 regarding British historians that, "Indeed, it is the generally accepted view in Britain today that they were right at least to have tried."
Halifax has been charged with appeasement, along with Chamberlain, but Roberts argues that Halifax in fact began to move his government away from that policy vis-à-vis Hitler's Germany, following the 1938 Munich Crisis.

Demilitarisation

demilitarizationdemilitarizeddemilitarising
Under the Versailles Settlement, the Rhineland was demilitarized.
The resulting position of British military weakness during the rise of the Nazi regime in Germany was among the causes that led to the policy of appeasement.

Stanley Baldwin

BaldwinStanley Baldwin, 1st Earl Baldwin of BewdleySir Stanley Baldwin
The term is most often applied to the foreign policy of the British governments of Prime Ministers Ramsay MacDonald, Stanley Baldwin and Neville Chamberlain towards Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy between 1935 and 1939.
After Chamberlain's death in 1940, Baldwin's perceived part in pre-war appeasement made him an unpopular figure during and after World War II.

Edward Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax

Lord HalifaxLord IrwinE. F. L. Wood, 1st Earl of Halifax
In August 1938, General Ludwig Beck relayed a message to Lord Halifax explaining that most of the German General Staff were preparing a coup against the Fuhrer, but would only attack with "proof that England will fight if Czechoslovakia is attacked".
He was one of the architects of the policy of appeasement of Adolf Hitler in 1936–38, working closely with Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain.

History of Czechoslovakia

CzechoslovakiaCzechoslovak1948–89
Under the Versailles Settlement, Czechoslovakia was created with the territory of the Czech part more or less corresponding to the Czech Crown lands as they had existed within the Austria-Hungary and before.
Adolf Hitler's rise in Nazi Germany in 1933; the German annexation (Anschluss) of Austria in 1938; the resulting revival of revisionism in Hungary; the agitation for autonomy in Slovakia; and the appeasement policy of the Western powers of France and the United Kingdom left Czechoslovakia without effective allies.

Clement Attlee

AttleeEarl AttleeAttlee government
He was replaced by Clement Attlee, who at first opposed rearmament, advocating the abolition of national armaments and a world peace-keeping force under the direction of the League of Nations.
Elected Leader of the Labour Party in 1935, and at first advocating pacificism and opposing re-armament, he became a critic of Neville Chamberlain's appeasement of Hitler and Mussolini in the lead-up to the Second World War.

Anti-communism

anti-communistanticommunistanti-communists
At the beginning of the 1930s, such concessions were widely seen as positive due to the trauma of World War I, second thoughts about the vindictive treatment of Germany in the Treaty of Versailles, and a perception that Fascism was a useful form of anti-communism.
In support of the Reagan Doctrine and other anti-communist foreign and defense policies, prominent United States and Western anti-communists warned that the United States needed to avoid repeating the West's perceived mistakes of appeasement of Nazi Germany.

League of Nations

The League of NationsCouncil of the League of NationsLeague
Chamberlain's policy of appeasement emerged from the failure of the League of Nations and the failure of collective security.
Ultimately, Britain and France both abandoned the concept of collective security in favour of appeasement in the face of growing German militarism under Hitler.

Kurt Schuschnigg

Kurt von SchuschniggSchuschniggChancellor Schuschnigg
The Austrian Chancellor Kurt Schuschnigg wished to pursue ties with Italy, but turned to Czechoslovakia, Yugoslavia and Romania (the Little Entente).
Schuschnigg adopted a policy of appeasement towards Hitler and called Austria the "better German state", but struggled to keep Austria independent.

Sudetendeutsches Freikorps

Sudeten German uprising 1938covert warFreikorps Sudetenland
Hitler increased his aggression against Czechoslovakia and ordered the establishment of a Sudeten German paramilitary organization, which proceeded to carry out terrorist attacks on Czech targets.

Peace for our time

Peace in our timeI have in my hand a piece of paper...…peace for our time
He confidently announced after Munich that he had secured "peace for our time".

Guilty Men

Although she argued against the policy of "peace at almost any price" she did not take the personal tone that Guilty Men was to take two years later. Three British journalists, Michael Foot, Frank Owen and Peter Howard, writing under the name of "Cato" in their book Guilty Men, called for the removal from office of 15 public figures they held accountable, including Chamberlain and Baldwin.
Guilty Men is a short book published in Great Britain in July 1940 that attacked British public figures for their failure to re-arm and their appeasement of Nazi Germany in the 1930s.

Michael Foot

The Right Honourable '''Michael FootFootFoot, Michael
Three British journalists, Michael Foot, Frank Owen and Peter Howard, writing under the name of "Cato" in their book Guilty Men, called for the removal from office of 15 public figures they held accountable, including Chamberlain and Baldwin.
He co-wrote the classic 1940 polemic against appeasement of Adolf Hitler, Guilty Men, under a pseudonym.

Shiela Grant Duff

Grant Duff, Shiela
The journalist Shiela Grant Duff's Penguin Special, Europe and the Czechs was published and distributed to every MP on the day that Chamberlain returned from Munich.
She was notable for her opposition to appeasement before the Second World War.

The Times

TimesTimes Newspapers LtdTimes Online
The German correspondent for the Times of London, Norman Ebbutt, charged that his persistent reports about Nazi militarism were suppressed by his editor Geoffrey Dawson.
The paper gained a measure of notoriety in the 1930s with its advocacy of German appeasement; editor Geoffrey Dawson was closely allied with those in the government who practised appeasement, most notably Neville Chamberlain.

Norman Ebbutt

The German correspondent for the Times of London, Norman Ebbutt, charged that his persistent reports about Nazi militarism were suppressed by his editor Geoffrey Dawson.
He warned of Nazi warmongering but The Times censored his reports to promote appeasement.