Appendectomy

appendicectomyappendectomiesappendix removedappendixappendix surgerysurgical removal of the appendixapendectomyappendicitisappendix removalemergency appendectomy
An appendectomy (known outside the United States as appendisectomy or appendicectomy) is a surgical operation in which the vermiform appendix (a portion of the intestine) is removed.wikipedia
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Appendicitis

ruptured appendixacute appendicitisburst appendix
Appendectomy is normally performed as an urgent or emergency procedure to treat acute appendicitis.
The standard treatment for acute appendicitis is surgical removal of the appendix.

Appendix (anatomy)

appendixvermiform appendixvermiform
An appendectomy (known outside the United States as appendisectomy or appendicectomy) is a surgical operation in which the vermiform appendix (a portion of the intestine) is removed.
Although it has been long accepted that the immune tissue surrounding the appendix and elsewhere in the gut—called gut-associated lymphoid tissue—carries out a number of important functions, explanations were lacking for the distinctive shape of the appendix and its apparent lack of specific importance and function as judged by an absence of side effects following its removal.

Laparotomy

laparotomieslaparotomicabdominal exploratory surgery
Advanced pelvic sepsis occasionally requires a lower midline laparotomy.
Davis or Rockey-Davis "muscle-splitting" right lower quadrant incision for appendectomy, named for the Oregon surgeon Alpha Eugene Rockey (1857–1927) and the Philadelphia surgeon Gwilym George Davis (1857–1918), who devised such incision style in 1905.

Laparoscopy

laparoscopiclaparoscopic surgerylaparoscopically
Appendectomy may be performed laparoscopically (as minimally invasive surgery) or as an open operation.
In 1981, Semm, from the gynecological clinic of Kiel University, Germany, performed the first laparoscopic appendectomy.

Incisional hernia

hernia, ventralincisionalIncisional ventral hernia
5) The various layers of the abdominal wall are opened. In order to preserve the integrity of abdominal wall, the external oblique aponeurosis is split along the line of its fibers, as is the internal oblique muscle. As the two run at right angles to each other, this reduces the risk of later incisional hernia.
Virtually any prior abdominal operation can develop an incisional hernia at the scar area (provided adequate healing does not occur due to infection), including large abdominal procedures such as intestinal or vascular surgery, and small incisions, such as (appendix removal or abdominal exploratory surgery).

Claudius Amyand (surgeon)

Claudius Amyand
The first recorded successful appendectomy was on December 6, 1735, at St. George's Hospital in London, when French surgeon Claudius Amyand described the presence of a perforated appendix within the inguinal hernial sac of an 11-year-old boy.
Claudius Amyand (c. 1660 – 6 July 1740) was a French born surgeon who performed the first recorded successful appendectomy.

McBurney's point

4) If a mass is present, the incision is made over the mass. Otherwise, the incision is made over McBurney's point (one-third of the way from the anterior superior iliac spine to the umbilicus), which represents the most common position of the base of the appendix.
For most open appendectomies (as opposed to laparoscopic appendectomies), the incision is made at McBurney's point.

Inguinal hernia

inguinalscrotal herniahernia, inguinal
The first recorded successful appendectomy was on December 6, 1735, at St. George's Hospital in London, when French surgeon Claudius Amyand described the presence of a perforated appendix within the inguinal hernial sac of an 11-year-old boy.
Risk factors for the development of a hernia include: smoking, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, obesity, pregnancy, peritoneal dialysis, collagen vascular disease, and previous open appendectomy, among others.

Abdominal surgery

abdominalabdominal surgeriesAbdominal reconstruction
Harry Hancock performed the first abdominal surgery for appendicitis in 1848, but he did not remove the appendix.
Appendectomy—Surgical opening of the abdominal cavity and removal of the appendix. Typically performed as definitive treatment for appendicitis, although sometimes the appendix is prophylactically removed incidental to another abdominal procedure.

Leonid Rogozov

Rogozov, Leonid
Another was Leonid Rogozov, who had to perform the operation on himself as he was the only doctor on a remote Antarctic base.
He was the only doctor stationed at the Novolazarevskaya Station and, while there, developed appendicitis, which meant he had to perform an appendectomy on himself in a case of self-surgery.

Evan O'Neill Kane

EvanEvan O'Neil
One was attempted by Evan O'Neill Kane in 1921, but the operation was completed by his assistants.
He practiced as a physician in Kane and later became chief surgeon of the Kane Summit Hospital, a position he held at the time of his own appendectomy operation.

Kurt Semm

On September 13, 1980, Kurt Semm performed the first laparoscopic appendectomy opening up the path for a much wider application of minimally invasive surgery.
On 13 September 1980 Semm performed the first laparoscopic appendectomy opening up the path for a much wider application of minimally invasive surgery.

Surgery

surgicalsurgeonsurgical procedure
An appendectomy (known outside the United States as appendisectomy or appendicectomy) is a surgical operation in which the vermiform appendix (a portion of the intestine) is removed.

Minimally invasive procedures

minimally invasiveminimally invasive surgeryinvasive
Appendectomy may be performed laparoscopically (as minimally invasive surgery) or as an open operation.

Sepsis

septicemiasepticaemiablood poisoning
1) Antibiotics are given immediately if signs of actual sepsis are seen (in appendicitis, sepsis and bacteremia usually only occurs at some point after rupture, once peritonitis has begun), or if there is reasonable suspicion that the appendix has ruptured (e.g., on imaging) or if the onset of peritonitis- which will lead to full sepsis if not quickly treated- is suspected; otherwise, a single dose of prophylactic intravenous antibiotics is given immediately before surgery.

General anaesthesia

general anesthesiageneralgeneral anesthetic
2) General anaesthesia is induced, with endotracheal intubation and full muscle relaxation, and the patient is positioned supine.

Tracheal tube

endotracheal tubebreathing tubebreathing tubes
2) General anaesthesia is induced, with endotracheal intubation and full muscle relaxation, and the patient is positioned supine.

Muscle relaxant

skeletal muscle relaxantmuscle relaxantsmuscle relaxation
2) General anaesthesia is induced, with endotracheal intubation and full muscle relaxation, and the patient is positioned supine.

Supine position

supinelying downlying
2) General anaesthesia is induced, with endotracheal intubation and full muscle relaxation, and the patient is positioned supine.

Abdomen

abdominalabdominal musclesbelly
3) The abdomen is prepared and draped and is examined under anesthesia.

Anterior superior iliac spine

ASISanterior superior iliac crest
4) If a mass is present, the incision is made over the mass. Otherwise, the incision is made over McBurney's point (one-third of the way from the anterior superior iliac spine to the umbilicus), which represents the most common position of the base of the appendix.

Navel

umbilicusbelly buttonbellybutton
4) If a mass is present, the incision is made over the mass. Otherwise, the incision is made over McBurney's point (one-third of the way from the anterior superior iliac spine to the umbilicus), which represents the most common position of the base of the appendix.

Abdominal wall

anterior abdominal walllayer of the anterior abdominal wallposterior abdominal wall
5) The various layers of the abdominal wall are opened. In order to preserve the integrity of abdominal wall, the external oblique aponeurosis is split along the line of its fibers, as is the internal oblique muscle. As the two run at right angles to each other, this reduces the risk of later incisional hernia.

Abdominal external oblique muscle

obliqueexternal obliqueoblique muscle
5) The various layers of the abdominal wall are opened. In order to preserve the integrity of abdominal wall, the external oblique aponeurosis is split along the line of its fibers, as is the internal oblique muscle. As the two run at right angles to each other, this reduces the risk of later incisional hernia.