Applied Physics Laboratory

Alan Stern celebrating the successful flyby of the Pluto system by New Horizons in 2015 in the APL Mission Operations Center.

Not-for-profit university-affiliated research center (UARC) in Howard County, Maryland.

- Applied Physics Laboratory

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Johns Hopkins University

Private research university in Baltimore, Maryland.

Private research university in Baltimore, Maryland.

Johns Hopkins
Heidelberg University offered the example after which the new institution modeled itself
Daniel Coit Gilman
Hopkins Hall circa 1885, on the original downtown Baltimore campus
Johns Hopkins Hospital
Gilman Hall, flagship building of the Homewood campus
Maryland Hall, second home of the Whiting School of Engineering
The Legg Mason Tower, home of the new Carey Business School
View toward Gilman Hall from Levering Plaza on the Homewood Campus
Peabody Institute
Washington D.C. Campus (SAIS)
The George Peabody Library
Installing a New Horizons Imager at the APL
View of Mission Operations at the Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, MD
Students socializing on The Beach, with Homewood House in the background
Alumni Memorial Residence I, a freshman dormitory
Johns Hopkins men's lacrosse at Homewood Field

The university also consists of the Peabody Institute, Applied Physics Laboratory, Paul H. Nitze School of Advanced International Studies, School of Education, Carey Business School, and various other facilities.

Proximity fuze MK53 removed from shell, circa 1950s

Proximity fuze

Fuze that detonates an explosive device automatically when the distance to the target becomes smaller than a predetermined value.

Fuze that detonates an explosive device automatically when the distance to the target becomes smaller than a predetermined value.

Proximity fuze MK53 removed from shell, circa 1950s
German World War II magnetic mine that landed on the ground instead of the water.
120mm HE mortar shell fitted with proximity fuze
120mm HE mortar shell fitted with M734 proximity fuze
60mm HE mortar shell fitted with proximity fuze
A 155mm artillery fuze with selector for point/proximity detonation (currently set to proximity).

Work on the radio shell fuze was completed by Tuve's group, known as Section T, at The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Lab (APL).

Laurel, Maryland

City in Maryland, United States, located midway between Washington and Baltimore on the banks of the Patuxent River.

City in Maryland, United States, located midway between Washington and Baltimore on the banks of the Patuxent River.

A head-on train wreck in Laurel, July 31, 1922
Board track racing at Laurel, July 11, 1925
Laurel's Route 1 commercial landmark for over 50 years, a neon Giant Food sign
I-95 northbound in Laurel
Laurel Railroad Station
Laurel Volunteer Fire Department Engine 103
Laurel Volunteer Fire Department
Laurel Main Street Festival, 2007

The Department of Defense is a prominent presence in the Laurel area today, with the Fort Meade Army base, the NSA and Johns Hopkins' Applied Physics Laboratory all located nearby.

Merle Tuve

Merle Tuve

American geophysicist who was the Chairman of the Office of Scientific Research and Development's Section T, which was created in August 1940.

American geophysicist who was the Chairman of the Office of Scientific Research and Development's Section T, which was created in August 1940.

Merle Tuve

He was founding director of the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, the main laboratory of Section T during the war from 1942 onward.

New Horizons

Interplanetary space probe that was launched as a part of NASA's New Frontiers program.

Interplanetary space probe that was launched as a part of NASA's New Frontiers program.

New Horizons before launch
Early concept art of the New Horizons spacecraft. The mission, led by the Applied Physics Laboratory and Alan Stern, eventually became the first mission to Pluto.
Artist's impression of New Horizons close encounter with the Plutonian system
View of Mission Operations at the Applied Physics Laboratory in Laurel, Maryland (July 14, 2015)
New Horizons in a factory at Kennedy Space Center in 2005
New Horizons RTG
New Horizons antenna, with some test equipment attached.
LORRI—long-range camera
SWAP – Solar Wind Around Pluto
Ralph—telescope and color camera
VBSDC—Venetia Burney Student Dust Counter
Infrared image of Jupiter by New Horizons
Alan Stern and the New Horizons team celebrate after the spacecraft successfully completed its flyby of Pluto.
Patterns of blue-gray ridges and reddish material observed in the Tartarus Dorsa region on July 14, 2015
View of Pluto as New Horizons left the system, catching the Sun's rays passing through Pluto's atmosphere, forming a ring
heading in the direction
Big picture: from the inner Solar System to the Oort cloud with the Kuiper belt in between
Trajectory of New Horizons and other nearby Kuiper belt objects
486958 Arrokoth, the announced target for the Kuiper belt object mission
Animation of New Horizons trajectory from January 19, 2006 to December 30, 2030
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New Horizons image of Arrokoth
New Horizons position
Speed and distance from the Sun

Engineered by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (APL) and the Southwest Research Institute (SwRI), with a team led by Alan Stern, the spacecraft was launched in 2006 with the primary mission to perform a flyby study of the Pluto system in 2015, and a secondary mission to fly by and study one or more other Kuiper belt objects (KBOs) in the decade to follow, which became a mission to 486958 Arrokoth.

MESSENGER

NASA robotic space probe that orbited the planet Mercury between 2011 and 2015, studying Mercury's chemical composition, geology, and magnetic field.

NASA robotic space probe that orbited the planet Mercury between 2011 and 2015, studying Mercury's chemical composition, geology, and magnetic field.

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MESSENGER captured a near-complete portrait of the Solar System during November 2010.
MESSENGER's first (March 29, 2011) and last (April 30, 2015) images from Mercury's orbit ([[:File:Details of MESSENGER's Impact Location.jpg|impact details]]).
alt=Diagram of MESSENGER|Diagram of MESSENGER.
alt=MESSENGER assembly installation of solar panels Astrotech|The assembly of MESSENGER{{'}}s solar panels by APL technicians.
alt=Technicians prepare MESSENGER for transfer to a hazardous processing facility|Technicians prepare MESSENGER for transfer to a hazardous processing facility.
alt=Attachment of the Payload Assist Module to MESSENGER. The ceramic-cloth sunshade is prominent in this view|Attachment of the PAM to MESSENGER. The ceramic-cloth sunshade is prominent in this view.
alt= A suited worker looks over the hydrazine fuel supply to be loaded in MESSENGER.|A suited worker looks over the hydrazine fuel supply to be loaded in MESSENGER.
alt=Exploded launch configuration diagram with MESSENGER and Delta 2 rocket|Exploded diagram of Delta II launch vehicle with MESSENGER
alt=The launch of MESSENGER on a Delta II launch vehicle|The launch of MESSENGER on a Delta II launch vehicle.
thumb|Animation of MESSENGER{{'s}} trajectory from August 3, 2004 to May 1, 2015 {{legend2|magenta| MESSENGER }}{{·}}{{legend2|Royalblue|Earth}}{{·}}{{legend2|Lime|Mercury}} {{·}}{{legend2| Cyan |Venus}}
alt=Interplanetary trajectory of MESSENGER orbiter|Interplanetary trajectory of the MESSENGER orbiter.
alt=A view of Earth from MESSENGER during its Earth flyby|A view of Earth from MESSENGER during its Earth flyby.
alt=Another view of Earth from MESSENGER during its Earth flyby|A view of Earth from MESSENGER during its Earth flyby.
alt=The Earth and Moon captured by the MESSENGER Wide Angle Camera from a distance of 183 million kilometers|The Earth and Moon (lower left), captured by MESSENGER from a distance of 183 million kilometers.
alt=Venus Imaged by MESSENGER on the first flyby of the planet|Venus imaged by MESSENGER on its first flyby of the planet in 2006.
alt=Venus imaged by MESSENGER on the second flyby of the planet|Venus imaged by MESSENGER on its second flyby of the planet in 2007.
alt=A more detailed image of Venus by MESSENGER on the second flyby of the planet|A more detailed image of Venus MESSENGER on the second flyby of the planet.
alt=Sequence of images as MESSENGER departs after the second flyby of the planet|Sequence of images as MESSENGER departs after the second flyby of the planet.
alt=The first high-resolution color Wide Angle Camera image of Mercury acquired by MESSENGER|The first high-resolution color Wide Angle Camera image of Mercury acquired by MESSENGER.
alt=Mercury from later in the first flyby|Mercury from later in the first flyby, showing many previously unknown features
alt=View from the second flyby in October 2008|View from the second flyby in October 2008, with Kuiper crater near center
alt=Smooth plains on Mercury imaged by MESSENGER during the third flyby of the planet.|Smooth plains of Borealis Planitia imaged by MESSENGER during the third flyby of the planet.
alt=An image of part of the previously unseen side of the planet|An image of part of the previously unseen side of the planet.
alt=Lava-flooded craters and large expanses of smooth volcanic plains on Mercury.|Lava-flooded craters and large expanses of smooth volcanic plains on Mercury.
alt=A photo of Mercury with Rachmaninoff crater centered|View with Rachmaninoff crater, from third flyby
Animation of MESSENGER{{'s}} trajectory around Mercury from March 15, 2011 to December 30, 2014 {{legend2|magenta| MESSENGER}}{{·}}{{legend2|Royalblue|Mercury}}
alt=Charles Bolden and colleagues wait for news from MESSENGER.|Charles Bolden and colleagues wait for news from the MESSENGER probe.
alt=Charles Bolden congratulates Eric Finnegan as the spacecraft successfully inserted itself in Mercury's orbit.|Charles Bolden congratulates Eric Finnegan following the successful orbital insertion.
alt=The first-ever photograph from Mercury orbit, taken by MESSENGER on March 29, 2011.|The first-ever photograph from Mercury orbit, taken by MESSENGER on March 29, 2011.
alt=A Chart of MESSENGER's Orbital Insertion|A simplified chart showing the path of MESSENGER{{'}}s orbital insertion.
alt=A Monochrome view of Mercury from MESSENGER|A monochrome image of Mercury from MESSENGER, with Warhol at center.
alt=Crater Stevenson, with crater chains forming an 'x' across its surface|Stevenson crater, with two perpendicular secondary crater chains running through its center.
alt=A South Polar Projection of Mercury|A south polar projection of Mercury.
alt=A close snapshot of Ridges near the South Pole|A close snapshot of ridges near Mercury's south pole.
A MESSENGER image of Mercury shows previously undetected fault scarps— cliff-like landforms resembling stairs that are small enough that scientists believe they are geologically young. This shows that Mercury is still contracting, and that Earth is not the only tectonically active Solar System planet.
False-color map showing maximum temperatures of north polar region.
Crater Apollodorus, with the Pantheon Fossae radiating from it.
Crater rays streaking across the planet's southern hemisphere.
Hollows in the wall of crater Sholem Aleichem.<ref>{{cite web|url=http://messenger.jhuapl.edu/gallery/sciencePhotos/image.php?gallery_id=2&image_id=1349|title=High-resolution Hollows|work=MESSENGER Featured Images|date=March 12, 2014|publisher=JHU - APL|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20140314010953/http://messenger.jhuapl.edu/gallery/sciencePhotos/image.php?gallery_id=2&image_id=1349|archive-date=March 14, 2014|url-status=dead}}</ref><ref name = "Lakdawalla2014.02.18">{{cite web|last = Lakdawalla|first = E.|author-link = Emily Lakdawalla|title = What are Mercury's hollows?|publisher = Planetary Society|date = February 18, 2014|url = http://www.planetary.org/blogs/emily-lakdawalla/2014/02171332-what-are-mercurys-hollows.html|access-date = May 1, 2015 }}</ref>
Perspective view of Caloris Basin – high (red); low (blue).
Mass concentrations (red; Caloris Basin at center, Sobkou Planitia at right), detected via gravity anomalies, provide evidence for subsurface structure and evolution.
Northern hemisphere topography from MLA data shows a 10 km vertical range: high (red); low (purple).
MASCS spectral scan of Mercury's surface.
Water ice (yellow) in permanently shaded craters of Mercury's north polar region

The MESSENGER spacecraft was designed and built at the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory.

NEAR Shoemaker

Near-Earth asteroid Eros as seen from the NEAR spacecraft.
Launch of NEAR, February 1996
One of the images from the flyby of 253 Mathilde
Eros from approximately 250 meters altitude (area in image is roughly 12 meters across). This image was taken during NEAR descent to the surface of the asteroid.
NEAR spacecraft inside its Delta II rocket.
Diagram showing location of NEAR science instruments.
Trajectory graphic depicting the voyage of the NEAR spacecraft
Animation of NEAR Shoemaker{{'s}} trajectory from February 19, 1996, to February 12, 2001{{hlist|{{legend2|magenta|NEAR Shoemaker}}|{{legend2|lime|Eros}}|{{legend2|RoyalBlue|Earth}}|{{legend2|cyan|Mathilde}}|{{legend2|yellow|Sun}}}}
Animation of NEAR Shoemaker{{'s}} trajectory around Eros from April 1, 2000, to February 12, 2001{{hlist|{{legend2|magenta|NEAR Shoemaker}}|{{legend2|Lime|433 Eros}}}}

Near Earth Asteroid Rendezvous – Shoemaker (NEAR Shoemaker), renamed after its 1996 launch in honor of planetary scientist Eugene Shoemaker, was a robotic space probe designed by the Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory for NASA to study the near-Earth asteroid Eros from close orbit over a period of a year.

University Affiliated Research Center

Strategic United States Department of Defense (DoD) research center associated with a university.

Strategic United States Department of Defense (DoD) research center associated with a university.

University affiliated laboratories have been conducting research and development for the United States Navy since 1942, beginning with the creation of the Applied Physics Lab at Johns Hopkins.

Transit (satellite)

The first satellite navigation system to be used operationally.

The first satellite navigation system to be used operationally.

Operational Transit satellite
Transit-1-Satellite Prototype
Vestibule and Quonset hut housing Transit satellite tracking station 019. 1. Triad satellite magnetometer down load antenna. 2. flag pole, 3. Utility pole in background, 4 Revolving light temperature alarm, 5 VLF antenna, 6–9 Doppler satellite tracking antennas, 10. stove pipe for heater, 11 Flood light for low visibility conditions, 12 fuel tank.
Some of the equipment inside Transit satellite tracking station 019. 1. Automatic Control Unit, 2. timer-counter, 3. Time burst detector, 4. time conversion chart, 5. satellite ephemeris, 6. tracking receiver, 7. time display, 8 Header-Tailer programmer, 9. Digitizer and main clock, 10. master oscillator, 11. strip chart recorder, 12. paper tape punch, 13. short wave receiver.   Out of sight: VLF receiver, refraction correction unit, backup battery system, power supplies, AC voltage regulators.
Orbits of the five Transit Satellites (text in German.)

The Transit satellite system, sponsored by the Navy and developed jointly by DARPA and the Johns Hopkins Applied Physics Laboratory, under the leadership of Dr. Richard Kershner at Johns Hopkins, was the first satellite-based geopositioning system.

Parker Solar Probe

NASA space probe launched in 2018 with the mission of making observations of the outer corona of the Sun.

NASA space probe launched in 2018 with the mission of making observations of the outer corona of the Sun.

A light bar testing in the Astrotech processing facility.
The thermal testing of the spacecraft.
An animation of the Parker Solar Probe trajectory from August 7, 2018 to August 29, 2025:
····
For more detailed animation, see [[:File:Animation of Parker Solar Probe trajectory.webm|this video.]]
Launch of Parker Solar Probe in 2018.
The overall goal is to increase understanding of Earth's star, the Sun — an astronomical body of immense impact on the Earth and the Solar System due to its release of light and solar wind, in addition to its strong gravity. The spacecraft must contend with these forces as it approaches closer to the Sun than any probe before it.
An apparent size of the Sun as seen from Parker Solar Probe at perihelion compared to its apparent size seen from Earth.
The EPI-Lo instrument for IS☉IS is prepared.
Artist's rendition of Parker approaching the Sun
The second flyby of Venus on December 26, 2019. The velocity decreases by 2.9 km/s to 26 km/s (red circle), shifting the spacecraft to a new orbit closer to the Sun.
WISPR first light image. The right portion of the image is from WISPR's inner telescope, which is a 40-degree field of view and begins 58.5 degrees from the Sun's center. The left portion is from the outer telescope, which is a 58-degree field of view and ends about 160 degrees from the Sun.<ref>{{Cite web |url=http://parkersolarprobe.jhuapl.edu/News-Center/Show-Article.php?articleID=101 |title=Illuminating First Light Data from Parker Solar Probe |publisher=Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory |first1=Sarah |last1=Frazier |first2=Justyna |last2=Surowiec |date=19 September 2018 |access-date=22 September 2018 |archive-date=December 30, 2021 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20211230155521/http://parkersolarprobe.jhuapl.edu/News-Center/Show-Article.php?articleID=101 |url-status=live }}</ref>
The view from the probe's WISPR instrument on Sept. 25, 2018, shows Earth, the bright sphere near the middle of the right-hand panel. The elongated mark toward the bottom of the panel is a lens reflection from the WISPR instrument<ref>{{cite web |last1=Garner |first1=Rob |title=Parker Solar Probe Looks Back at Home |url=https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2018/parker-solar-probe-looks-back-at-home |website=NASA |access-date=29 April 2022 |date=22 October 2018 |archive-date=April 29, 2022 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20220429112442/https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2018/parker-solar-probe-looks-back-at-home/ |url-status=live }}</ref>
Photo from the WISPR shows a coronal streamer, seen over the east limb of the Sun on Nov. 8, 2018, at 1:12 a.m. EST. The fine structure of the streamer is very clear, with at least two rays visible. Parker Solar Probe was about 16.9 million miles from the Sun's surface when this image was taken. The bright object near the center of the image is Mercury, and the dark spots are a result of background correction.<ref>{{Cite web|url=http://parkersolarprobe.jhuapl.edu/News-Center/Show-Article.php?articleID=115|title=Preparing for Discovery With NASA's Parker Solar Probe|publisher=Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory|website=Parker Solar Probe|language=en|access-date=2018-12-23|archive-date=February 14, 2022|archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20220214234620/http://parkersolarprobe.jhuapl.edu/News-Center/Show-Article.php?articleID=115|url-status=live}}</ref>
When Parker Solar Probe was making its closest approach to the Sun on June 7, 2020, WISPR captured the planets Mercury, Venus, Earth, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn in its field of view<ref>{{cite web |last1=Buckley |first1=Mike |title=Parker Solar Probe Captures a Planetary Portrait |url=http://parkersolarprobe.jhuapl.edu/News-Center/Show-Article.php?articleID=158 |website=Parker Solar Probe |publisher=Johns Hopkins APL |access-date=29 April 2022 |language=en |archive-date=April 29, 2022 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20220429112813/http://parkersolarprobe.jhuapl.edu/News-Center/Show-Article.php?articleID=158 |url-status=live }}</ref>
Photo taken by the probe during its second Venus flyby, July 2020
As Parker Solar Probe flew by Venus on its fourth flyby, its WISPR instrument captured these images, showing the nightside surface of the planet<ref>{{cite web |last1=Hatfield |first1=Miles |title=Parker Solar Probe Captures Visible Light Images of Venus' Surface |url=https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2022/sun/parker-solar-probe-captures-its-first-images-of-venus-surface-in-visible-light-confirmed |website=NASA |access-date=29 April 2022 |date=9 February 2022 |archive-date=April 14, 2022 |archive-url=https://web.archive.org/web/20220414155959/https://www.nasa.gov/feature/goddard/2022/sun/parker-solar-probe-captures-its-first-images-of-venus-surface-in-visible-light-confirmed/ |url-status=live }}</ref>

Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory designed and built the spacecraft, which was launched on 12 August 2018.