Applied science

applied researchApplied Sciencesappliedapplied technologyapplicationpractical disciplinepractical disciplinesapplicationsindustrial scientistpractical science
Applied science is the application of existing scientific knowledge to practical applications, like technology or inventions.wikipedia
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Engineering

engineerengineersengineered
This includes a broad range of applied science related fields from engineering, medicine to early childhood education.
The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more specialized fields of engineering, each with a more specific emphasis on particular areas of applied mathematics, applied science, and types of application.

Technology

technologiestechnologicaltechnical
Applied science is the application of existing scientific knowledge to practical applications, like technology or inventions.
Scientists and engineers usually prefer to define technology as applied science, rather than as the things that people make and use.

Science

scientificsciencesscientific knowledge
Applied research is the practical application of science.
Disciplines that use existing scientific knowledge for practical purposes, such as engineering and medicine, are described as applied sciences.

Basic research

basicbasic sciencefundamental research
Within natural science, disciplines that are basic science, also called pure science, develop basic information to predict and perhaps explain and understand phenomena in the natural world. The OECD's Frascati Manual describes applied research as one of the three forms of research, along with basic research & experimental development.
Applied research, in turn, uses scientific theories to develop technology or techniques to intervene and alter natural or other phenomena.

Research and development

R&DResearch & DevelopmentR & D
The OECD's Frascati Manual describes applied research as one of the three forms of research, along with basic research & experimental development.
R&D activities differ from institution to institution, with two primary models of an R&D department either staffed by engineers and tasked with directly developing new products, or staffed with industrial scientists and tasked with applied research in scientific or technological fields, which may facilitate future product development.

Frascati Manual

The OECD's Frascati Manual describes applied research as one of the three forms of research, along with basic research & experimental development.
The manual gives definitions for: basic research, applied research, Research and development; research personnel: researchers, technicians, auxiliary personnel.

Medicine

medicalmedical scienceclinical medicine
This includes a broad range of applied science related fields from engineering, medicine to early childhood education. Medical sciences, for instance medical microbiology and clinical virology, are applied sciences that apply biology toward medical knowledge and inventions, but not necessarily medical technology, whose development is more specifically biomedicine or biomedical engineering.
In recent centuries, since the advent of modern science, most medicine has become a combination of art and science (both basic and applied, under the umbrella of medical science).

Medical microbiology

Clinical Microbiologyclinical virologymicrobiological
Medical sciences, for instance medical microbiology and clinical virology, are applied sciences that apply biology toward medical knowledge and inventions, but not necessarily medical technology, whose development is more specifically biomedicine or biomedical engineering.
Medical microbiology, the large subset of microbiology that is applied to medicine, is a branch of medical science concerned with the prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious diseases.

Fluid mechanics

fluid dynamicistfluidfluid physics
Engineering fields include thermodynamics, heat transfer, fluid mechanics, statics, dynamics, mechanics of materials, kinematics, electromagnetism, materials science, earth sciences, engineering physics.
Fluid dynamics offers a systematic structure—which underlies these practical disciplines—that embraces empirical and semi-empirical laws derived from flow measurement and used to solve practical problems.

Bachelor of Applied Science

B.A.Sc.BAScB.A.S.
In Canada, the Netherlands and other places the Bachelor of Applied Science (BASc) is equivalent to the Bachelor of Engineering, and is classified as a professional degree.
The BAS usually requires a student to take a majority of their courses in the applied sciences, specializing in a specific area such as the following:

Neuroscience

neurobiologyneuroscientistneurosciences
Courses and research cover varied fields including neuroscience, optics, materials science and engineering, nondestructive testing, and nuclear magnetic resonance.
Recently, the application of neuroscience research results has also given rise to applied disciplines as neuroeconomics, neuroeducation, neuroethics, and neurolaw.

Hard and soft science

hard sciencehard sciencessoft sciences
A closely related idea (originating in the nineteenth century with Auguste Comte) is that scientific disciplines can be arranged into a hierarchy of hard to soft on the basis of factors such as rigor, "development", and whether they are basic or applied.

Natural science

natural sciencesnaturalnatural scientist
Within natural science, disciplines that are basic science, also called pure science, develop basic information to predict and perhaps explain and understand phenomena in the natural world.

Information

informativeinputinputs
Within natural science, disciplines that are basic science, also called pure science, develop basic information to predict and perhaps explain and understand phenomena in the natural world.

Early childhood education

early childhoodEEchild education
This includes a broad range of applied science related fields from engineering, medicine to early childhood education.

Formal science

formal sciencesformalformal disciplines
Applied science can also apply formal science, such as statistics and probability theory, as in epidemiology.

Statistics

statisticalstatistical analysisstatistician
Applied science can also apply formal science, such as statistics and probability theory, as in epidemiology.

Probability theory

theory of probabilityprobabilityprobability theorist
Applied science can also apply formal science, such as statistics and probability theory, as in epidemiology.

Epidemiology

epidemiologistepidemiologicalepidemiologists
Applied science can also apply formal science, such as statistics and probability theory, as in epidemiology.

Genetic epidemiology

genetic epidemiologistgenetic epidemiologicalgenetic factor
Genetic epidemiology is an applied science applying both biological and statistical methods.

State (polity)

statestatesthe state
It accesses and uses accumulated theories, knowledge, methods, and techniques, for a specific, state-, business-, or client-driven purpose.

Commerce

commercialcommerciallybusiness
It accesses and uses accumulated theories, knowledge, methods, and techniques, for a specific, state-, business-, or client-driven purpose.

Customer

customersclientclientele
It accesses and uses accumulated theories, knowledge, methods, and techniques, for a specific, state-, business-, or client-driven purpose.

Empirical evidence

empiricala posterioriempirical data
Applied research deals with solving practical problems and generally employs empirical methodologies.

Sampling (statistics)

samplingrandom samplesample
For example, it may be impossible to use a random sample.