The "Dictator" siege mortar at Petersburg. In the foreground, the figure on the right is Brig. Gen. Henry J. Hunt, chief of artillery of the Army of the Potomac.
Ulysses S. Grant and Robert E. Lee, opposing commanders in the Appomattox campaign
Fredericksburg, Virginia; May 1863. Soldiers in the trenches. Trench warfare would appear again more infamously in World War I
Major General John B. Gordon
A portion of the 4th USCT Infantry
<center>Maj. Gen.
Siege of Petersburg, assaults on June 15–18
The Peacemakers by George Peter Alexander Healy, 1868, depicts the historic 1865 meeting on the River Queen
Siege of Petersburg, movements against the railroads and A.P. Hill's counterattack, June 21–22
Actions at Petersburg before and during the Battle of Five Forks
Wilson–Kautz Raid, June 22 – July 1
Brigadier General Joshua Chamberlain
"Dictator" siege mortar on the U.S. Military Railroad at Petersburg
Brigadier General (Brevet Major General) George Armstrong Custer
First Battle of Deep Bottom, July 27–29
Brigadier General W.H.F. "Rooney" Lee
Siege of Petersburg, Battle of the Crater, July 30
Colonel Thomas T. Munford
Sketch of the explosion seen from the Union line.
Major General Philip Sheridan
Second Battle of Deep Bottom, August 14–20
Major General George Pickett
Siege of Petersburg, capture of the Weldon Railroad, August 18–19
<center>Maj. Gen.
Siege of Petersburg, actions on October 27
<center>Maj. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee</center>
Siege of Petersburg, actions preceding Five Forks
Grant's assault on the Petersburg line and the start of Lee's retreat.
Grant's final assaults and Lee's retreat (start of the Appomattox Campaign)
Major General Horatio G. Wright
<center>Lt. Gen.
<center>Lt. Gen. A.P. Hill</center>
<center>Maj. Gen.
Major General Cadmus Wilcox
<center>Maj. Gen.
<center>Maj. Gen.
<center>Gen.
Major General Henry Heth
<center>Gen.
Brigadier General Nelson A. Miles
<center>Lt. Gen.
Brigadier General John R. Cooke
<center>Lt. Gen.
Thomas Wallace House at Petersburg, Virginia
<center>Lt. Gen.
Lee's retreat and Grant's pursuit, April 2–9, 1865
<center>Lt. Gen.
Brigadier General Rufus Barringer
<center>Brig. Gen. James H. Wilson</center>
Captain Thomas Custer
<center>Brig. Gen. August Kautz</center>
Davies captures the wagon train
Fascine Trench Breastworks, Petersburg, Va. – NARA – 524792. Although identified as Confederate Trenches this is actually Union Fort Sedgwick aka "Fort Hell" which was opposite Fort Mahone aka "Fort Damnation"<ref>Civil War talk Forum</ref>
High Bridge
Picture by Timothy H. O'Sullivan, 1865
Union Army 9th Corps attacking Fort Mahone aka "Fort Damanation" sketch by Alfred Ward.
Brigadier General Thomas Alfred Smyth
Confederate artilleryman killed during the final Union assault against the trenches at Petersburg. Photo by Thomas C. Roche, April 3, 1865.<ref>Frassanito, p. 360.</ref><ref>See website Petersburg Project on location of Many of the Roche photographs at Petersburg April 1865</ref> Although prints of this picture list it as being taken at Ft Mahone, historians at the "Petersburg Project" believe it was taken at Confederate Battery 25<ref>Dead Artilleryman comments Petersburg Project</ref>
Colonel Ely S. Parker
Smoke is still rising from the ruins of Richmond, Virginia after surrendering on April 3, 1865 following the Union victory at the siege of Petersburg. Union cavalry mounts with carbines visible are hitched in the foreground.
Lieutenant General Ulysses S. Grant
Richmond–Petersburg Theater, fall 1864
Confederate
Union
Colonel Charles Marshall
General Robert E. Lee
Union soldiers at the courthouse in April 1865.
Appomattox Centennial, 1965 issue.
Generals Sherman, Grant and Sheridan, 1937 Issue
Generals Lee and Jackson, 1937 Issue.
<center>Maj. Gen.
<center>Maj. Gen.
<center>Maj. Gen.
<center>Maj. Gen.
<center>Maj. Gen.
<center>Maj. Gen.
<center>Maj. Gen.
<center>Lt. Gen. James Longstreet, First Corps</center>
<center>Maj. Gen. John B. Gordon</center>
<center>Lt. Gen. Richard H. Anderson</center>
<center>Lt. Gen. Richard S. Ewell</center>
<center>Brig. Gen. Henry A. Wise</center>
Fascine Trench Breastworks, Petersburg, Va. – NARA – 524792. Although identified as Confederate Trenches this is actually Union Fort Sedgwick aka "Fort Hell" which was opposite Fort Mahone aka "Fort Damnation"<ref>Civil War talk Forum</ref>
Confederate defenses at Petersburg, Virginia, 1865 showing the site of "Fort Mahone"
Union Army 9th Corps attacking Fort Mahone aka "Fort Damanation" sketch by Alfred Ward.
Confederate artilleryman killed during the final Union assault against the trenches at Petersburg. Photo by Thomas C. Roche, April 3, 1865.<ref>Frassanito, p. 360.</ref><ref>See website Petersburg Project on location of Many of the Roche photographs at Petersburg April 1865</ref> Although prints of this picture list it as being taken at Ft Mahone, historians at the "Petersburg Project" believe it was taken at Confederate Battery 25<ref>Dead Artilleryman comments Petersburg Project</ref>

As the Richmond–Petersburg campaign (also known as the siege of Petersburg) ended, Lee's army was outnumbered and exhausted from a winter of trench warfare over an approximately 40 mi front, numerous battles, disease, hunger and desertion.

- Appomattox campaign

Lee finally gave into the pressure and abandoned both cities in April 1865, leading to his retreat and surrender at Appomattox Court House.

- Siege of Petersburg
The "Dictator" siege mortar at Petersburg. In the foreground, the figure on the right is Brig. Gen. Henry J. Hunt, chief of artillery of the Army of the Potomac.

27 related topics with Alpha

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Sheridan in uniform, 1888

Philip Sheridan

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Career United States Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War.

Career United States Army officer and a Union general in the American Civil War.

Sheridan in uniform, 1888
Sheridan during the 1860s
Brevet Second Lieutenant Philip Sheridan, engraving by H. B. Hall
Rienzi, stuffed and on display at the National Museum of American History
Union Cavalry General Philip Sheridan
Maj. Gen. Philip Sheridan and his generals in front of Sheridan's tent, 1864. Left to right: Henry E. Davies, David McM. Gregg, Sheridan, Wesley Merritt, Alfred Torbert, and James H. Wilson.
Union Cavalry General Philip Sheridan
Sheridan's Ride, chromolithograph by Thure de Thulstrup
Lee's retreat in the Appomattox Campaign, April 3–9, 1865
Sheridan portrait by Mathew Brady or Levin C. Handy
General Sheridan stands by his dispatches by Thomas Nast in Harper's Weekly, v. 19, no. 944 (January 30, 1875), p. 89.
Union General Philip H. Sheridan
A cartoon from Harper's Weekly of December 21, 1878, features Philip Sheridan and Secretary of the Interior Carl Schurz
Sheridan's headstone at Arlington National Cemetery. The inscription faces Washington, D.C.
Sheridan memorialized on the 1890 $10 Treasury note, and one of 53 people depicted on United States banknotes
Generals Sherman, Grant and Sheridan, Issue of 1937
Equestrian statue of Philip Sheridan in the center of Sheridan Circle in Washington, D.C.
Sheridan's Richmond Raid, including the Battles of Yellow Tavern and Meadow Bridge
Routes of Federal and Confederate cavalry to Trevilian Station, June 7–10, 1864
Sheridan's return to the Army of the Potomac from his Trevilian Station raid, including the Battle of Saint Mary's Church

A contrary view has been published by historian Eric J. Wittenberg, who notes that of four major strategic raids (Richmond, Trevilian, Wilson-Kautz, and First Deep Bottom) and thirteen major cavalry engagements of the Overland and Richmond–Petersburg campaigns, only Yellow Tavern can be considered a Union victory, with Haw's Shop, Trevilian Station, Meadow Bridge, Samaria Church, and Wilson-Kautz defeats in which some of Sheridan's forces barely avoided destruction.

His finest service of the Civil War was demonstrated during his relentless pursuit of Robert E. Lee's Army, effectively managing the most crucial aspects of the Appomattox Campaign for Grant.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, 1870–1880

Ulysses S. Grant

5 links

American military officer and politician who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877.

American military officer and politician who served as the 18th president of the United States from 1869 to 1877.

Portrait by Mathew Brady, 1870–1880
Grant's birthplace, Point Pleasant, Ohio
Grant c. undefined 1845–1847
Battle of Monterrey Published 1847
Chinook Indian Plank House Published 1845
Grant believed Pacific Northwest Indians were a peaceful people and not a threat to settlers.
"Hardscrabble" Published 1891
The farm home Grant built in Missouri for his family. His wife Julia called the home an "unattractive cabin".
Brigadier General Grant photographed at Cairo, Illinois, September 1861 (Published 1911)
21st Illinois regiment monument in the Viniard Field, Chickamauga
Grant's successful gamble: Porter's gunboats night ran the Confederate gauntlet at Vicksburg on the Mississippi River.
Published 1863
The Battle of Jackson, fought on May 14, 1863, was part of the Vicksburg Campaign.
Published 1863
Union troops swarm Missionary Ridge and defeat Bragg's army. Published 1886
Commanding General Grant at the Battle of Cold Harbor, June 1864
Grant (center left) next to Lincoln with General Sherman (far left) and Admiral Porter (right) – The Peacemakers by Healy, 1868
Defeated by Grant, Lee surrendered at Appomattox Court House
Ulysses S. Grant by Balling (1865)
Grant–Colfax Republican Ticket
Published 1868
220px
Inauguration of President U.S. Grant, Capitol building steps.
March 4, 1869
Anthony Comstock Grant's vigorous prosecutor of abortionists and pornographers.
Amos T. Akerman, appointed Attorney General by Grant, who vigorously prosecuted the Ku Klux Klan
Image of mobs rioting entitled "The Louisiana Outrage". White Leaguers at Liberty Place attacked the integrated police force and state militia, New Orleans, September 1874.
Published October 1874
Secretary of Treasury George S. Boutwell aided Grant to defeat the Gold Ring.
Secretary of State Hamilton Fish and Grant successfully settled the Alabama Claims by treaty and arbitration.
Wharf of Santo Domingo City
Dominican Republic
Dominican Republic
American Captain Frye and his crew were executed by Spanish authority.
King Kalākaua of Hawaii meets President Grant at the White House on his state visit, 1874.
Published January 2, 1875
Ely Samuel Parker
Grant appointed Parker the first Native American (Seneca) Commissioner of Indian Affairs.
Battle of the Little Big Horn
Great Sioux War
Published 1889
Cartoon by Thomas Nast on Grant's opponents in the reelection campaign
Grant is congratulated for vetoing the "inflation bill" in 1874.
Cartoonist Thomas Nast praises Grant for rejecting demands by Pennsylvania politicians to suspend civil service rules.
Harper's Weekly
cartoon on Bristow's Whiskey Ring investigation
Grant and Bismarck in 1878
Cartoonist Joseph Keppler lampooned Grant and his associates. Grant's prosecutions of the Whiskey Ring and the Klan were ignored.
Puck, 1880
Official White House portrait of President Grant by Henry Ulke, 1875
Commanding General Grant
Constant Mayer's portrait of 1866
Grant National Memorial, known as "Grant's Tomb", largest mausoleum in North America

For thirteen months, Grant fought Robert E. Lee during the high-casualty Overland Campaign and at Petersburg.

Achieving great national fame for his victories at Vicksburg and the surrender at Appomattox, he was widely credited as the General who "saved the Union".

Commanders of the Army of the Potomac at Culpeper, Virginia, 1863. From the left: Gouverneur K. Warren, William H. French, George G. Meade, Henry J. Hunt, Andrew A. Humphreys, George Sykes

Army of the Potomac

6 links

The principal Union Army in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War.

The principal Union Army in the Eastern Theater of the American Civil War.

Commanders of the Army of the Potomac at Culpeper, Virginia, 1863. From the left: Gouverneur K. Warren, William H. French, George G. Meade, Henry J. Hunt, Andrew A. Humphreys, George Sykes
The Army of the Potomac – Our Outlying Picket in the Woods, 1862
Grand Review of the Army of the Potomac, drawn by Thomas Nast, Harper's Weekly, October 10, 1863
Saint Patrick's Day celebration in the Army of the Potomac, depicting a steeplechase race among the Irish Brigade, March 17, 1863, by Edwin Forbes
Scouts and guides, Army of the Potomac, Mathew Brady
Headquarters of the 5th Corps, Army of the Potomac, at the home of Col. Avery near Petersburg, Virginia, June 1864. Photograph by Mathew Brady. From the Liljenquist Family Collection of Civil War Photographs, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress
800px

Richmond–Petersburg Campaign, including the Battle of the Crater: Grant/Meade

Appomattox Campaign, including Lee's surrender at Appomattox Court House: Grant/Meade

The battle of Petersburg Va. April 2nd 1865, lithograph by Currier and Ives

Third Battle of Petersburg

4 links

The battle of Petersburg Va. April 2nd 1865, lithograph by Currier and Ives
Grant's assault on the Petersburg line and the start of Lee's retreat
Major General Horatio G. Wright
Lieutenant General A. P. Hill
Major General Cadmus Wilcox
Major General John Gibbon
Major General John B. Gordon
Major General John G. Parke
Picket Post in front of Union Fort Sedgwick
Quarters of Men in Union Fort Sedgwick, Known as "Fort Hell"
61st Massachusetts Infantry attacking Fort Mahone April 1865
Confederate defenses of Fort Mahone aka Battery 29 at Petersburg, Virginia, 1865
Interior of Fort Mahone in 1865 also known as "Fort Damnation"
Brigadier General (Brevet Major General) Nelson A. Miles
Brigadier General John R. Cooke
National Park Service marker for Fort Gregg
Confederate Casualty trenches at Petersburg April 1865
Dead Confederate soldier at Petersburg, Virginia, April 1865.
Dead Confederate soldier at Petersburg, Virginia, April 1865.
Dead Confederate soldier at Petersburg, Virginia, April 1865
Dead Confederate soldier at Petersburg, Virginia, April 1865
Confederate Casualty trenches at Petersburg April 1865

The Third Battle of Petersburg, also known as the Breakthrough at Petersburg or the Fall of Petersburg, was fought on April 2, 1865, south and southwest of Petersburg, Virginia, at the end of the 292-day Richmond–Petersburg Campaign (sometimes called the Siege of Petersburg) and in the beginning stage of the Appomattox Campaign near the conclusion of the American Civil War.

Meade, portrait by Mathew Brady

George Meade

3 links

United States Army officer and civil engineer best known for decisively defeating Confederate General Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg in the American Civil War.

United States Army officer and civil engineer best known for decisively defeating Confederate General Robert E. Lee at the Battle of Gettysburg in the American Civil War.

Meade, portrait by Mathew Brady
Meade photographed by Mathew Brady or Levin C. Handy
General Meade's horse, Old Baldy
Commanders of the Army of the Potomac, Gouverneur K. Warren, William H. French, George G. Meade, Henry J. Hunt, Andrew A. Humphreys, and George Sykes in September 1863
General Meade's headquarters, Gettysburg, Pennsylvania
Engraving by James E. Kelly of George G. Meade and the Council of War at Gettysburg, July 2, 1863
General Meade's headquarters, Culpeper, Virginia
Horse artillery headquarters in Brandy Station, Virginia, February 1864. Meade stands at the far right with Generals John Sedgwick and Alfred Torbert, along with staff officers.
Generals George G. Meade, Andrew A. Humphreys and staff in Culpeper, Virginia outside Meade's headquarters, 1863
General Meade and other generals of Army of the Potomac in Washington, D.C., June 1865
General George G. Meade and staff in Washington, D.C. in June 1865
George Meade tombstone in Laurel Hill Cemetery
George Gordon Meade Memorial, sculpted by Charles Grafly, located in front of the E. Barrett Prettyman Federal Courthouse in Washington, D.C.
General Meade lived at 1836 Delancey Place, Philadelphia, and died in the house, 1872, according to the Pennsylvania Historical and Museum Commission marker in front.
A monument to Meade by sculptor Henry Kirke Bush-Brown, on the Gettysburg Battlefield, located close to the point where Pickett's Charge was repulsed.
Equestrian statue in Philadelphia, designed by Alexander Milne Calder, located in Fairmount Park, which Meade was the commissioner of following the war.

In 1864–65, Meade continued to command the Army of the Potomac through the Overland Campaign, the Richmond–Petersburg Campaign, and the Appomattox Campaign, but he was overshadowed by the direct supervision of the general-in-chief, Lt. Gen. Ulysses S. Grant, who accompanied him throughout these campaigns.

Union Army of the Shenandoah

4 links

Union army during the American Civil War.

Union army during the American Civil War.

Following those battles in the fall of 1864, the majority of the Army of the Shenandoah was detached to Grant at Petersburg and to William Tecumseh Sherman in Georgia.

April, 1865: Appomattox Campaign (Merritt, Order of Battle)

VI Corps badge

VI Corps (Union Army)

4 links

Corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War.

Corps of the Union Army during the American Civil War.

VI Corps badge
Monument to commemorate the death of General John Sedgwick, Commander of the Union Army VI Corps in the American Civil War, at Spotsylvania National Military Park, Virginia, USA.

Accompanying the army to Petersburg, it participated in the preliminary operations incidental to the investment of that stronghold.

Then came the hot pursuit of Lee's retreating veterans in the Appomattox Campaign, during which the corps fought at Sayler's Creek.

James Longstreet

2 links

One of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War and the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his "Old War Horse".

One of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War and the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his "Old War Horse".

Antebellum portrait of Longstreet
Sketch of Longstreet as a Confederate
August 30, 4 p.m.: Start of Longstreet's attack
Longstreet circa 1862
A map of the Battle of Fredericksburg
Longstreet at Gettysburg c. undefined 1900
Gettysburg, July 2
Pickett's Charge, July 3
Longstreet's Left Wing assaults, mid-day September 20
Carte de Visite portrait of Longstreet
James Longstreet after the war
James Longstreet after the war
James Longstreet in later life (1896), affecting the sideburns of his opponent at Fredericksburg and Knoxville
Longstreet's grave
Equestrian statue of General Longstreet on his horse Hero in Pitzer Woods at Gettysburg National Military Park
Map of events during the Peninsula campaign to the Battle of Seven Pines Confederate
Union
Longstreet's attack in the Battle of the Wilderness, May 6, 1864, shortly before he was wounded Confederate
Union

He later returned to the field, serving under Lee in the Siege of Petersburg and the Appomattox campaign.

John Parke

2 links

United States Army engineer and a Union general in the American Civil War.

United States Army engineer and a Union general in the American Civil War.

Parke served as chief of staff to Burnside during the Overland Campaign, in which the latter commanded IX Corps, as well as in the beginning stages of the Siege of Petersburg.

He led the IX Corps through the fall of Petersburg and the Appomattox Campaign.

Robert Sanford Foster

Robert Sanford Foster

1 links

American officer.

American officer.

Robert Sanford Foster

He played a prominent role in the Siege of Petersburg and the Appomattox Campaign.